What role does water holding capacity have in agriculture

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What role does water-holding capacity have in agriculture? Soil that can hold more water requires less water from rainfall or irrigation. In times of drought, the soil with higher water-holding capacity is important for farmers.

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Answer

What is the function of water holding capacity?

Water holding capacity (WHC) is the ability of proteins to prevent water from being released or expelled from their three-dimensional structure (Hermansson, 1986; Zayas, 1997b). WHC plays an important role in developing food texture, especially in comminuted meat products and baked dough (Zayas, 1997b).

What is soil water holding capacity and field capacity?

Simply defined soil water holding capacity is the amount of water that a given soil can hold for crop use. Field capacity is the point where the soil water holding capacity has reached its maximum for the entire field.

What is the difference between water holding capacity and absorption capacity?

Water-holding capacity (WHC) may be defined as the ability of meat to retain its own water under external influences such as compression or centrifugation. In this case, water-binding capacity becomes the ability of the meat to bind extra water added to a product. Water absorption or gelling capacity may be defined as the ability …

What is the water holding capacity of meat?

Water holding capacity (WHC) is the ability of food to hold its own or added water during the application of force, pressure, centrifugation, or heating. Water-holding capacity (WHC) of meat and meat products determines the visual acceptability, weight loss, and cook yield as well as sensory traits on consumption.

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Why is water holding capacity important to agriculture?

Water holding capacity is important to soil health. Soils that can retain a balanced amount of water are able to nourish crops and keep soil organic matter alive. Healthy soil structure forms into aggregates, lessening the density in the soil to create more pores, where water can filter in and out.


What is water holding capacity used for?

Water holding capacity (WHC) is the ability of proteins to prevent water from being released or expelled from their three-dimensional structure (Hermansson, 1986; Zayas, 1997b). WHC plays an important role in developing food texture, especially in comminuted meat products and baked dough (Zayas, 1997b).


How does water holding capacity affect soil quality?

Lack of available water reduces root and plant growth, and it can lead to plant death if sufficient moisture is not provided before a plant permanently wilts. A soil’s ability to function for water storage also influences runoff and nutrient leaching.


What is the main reason farmers would want to know the water holding capacity of soil in their fields?

It is important to know the water holding capacity of the soil to determine how much water storage capacity the field has, and to determine how much supplemental irrigation should be applied.


How does water holding capacity impact soil fertility?

From a soil biology perspective, If a soil is very good at retaining water (has high water holding capacity), that would influence the activity of your microbes in the soil, which in turn help to improve your soil fertility and structure through the process of decomposition of OM which then results in more CO2 release …


Why is soil water retention important?

The water retention by soil is critical for plants and acts as the chief source of moisture for it in almost all habitats. Other than percolation through the soil, soil moisture can also deplete due to evaporation directly from the soil and by transpiration by plants.


Why is soil consistency important to agriculture?

Soil is a very important natural resource in the agricultural field. Therefore, maintaining the right soil consistency is equally important. The water holding capacity and the movement of water through the soil for plants is determined by soil consistency.


Why does clayey soil have a very good water holding capacity explain?

The large surface area of the clay particles allows them to hold a greater quantity of water. Thus, the water holding capacity is the highest in clayey soil due to the large surface area as well as the tightly packed particles that restrict the water from percolating.


How can water holding capacity of soil be improved?

Organic matter can boost soil water holding capacity, particularly on sandy soil. Soil water holding capacity tends to improve as clay content increases. However, where soil has been compacted the most effective way of boosting soil water holding capacity is to create a favourable structure by loosening the soil.


What is field capacity in agriculture?

Field capacity is the amount of soil moisture or water content held in soil after excess water has drained away and the rate of downward movement has materially decreased, which usually takes place within 2–3 days after a rain or irrigation in pervious soils of uniform structure and texture.


What is a good water holding capacity of soil?

Soil Water Holding CharacteristicsSoil TexturePlant-Available Water Holding Capacity (inches of water per foot of soil)Coarse sands, fine sands, loamy sands0.75 – 1.25Sandy loams, fine sandy loams1.25 – 1.75Very fine sandy loams, loams, silt loams1.50 – 2.30Clay loams, silty clay loams, sandy clay loams1.75 – 2.502 more rows


What is the water holding capacity for organic matter?

and loses less water to runoff and evaporation. residue cover the soil. Organic matter holds 18-20 times its weight in water and recycles nutrients for plants to use. hold approximately 27,000 gallons of water per acre!


What is soil water holding capacity?

Soil water holding capacity is a term that all farms should know to optimize crop production. Simply defined soil water holding capacity is the amount of water that a given soil can hold for crop use. Field capacity is the point where the soil water holding capacity has reached its maximum for the entire field. The goal for agricultural producers is to maintain the field at or near capacity. When there is a deficit in the amount water in the soil, the soil profile needs to be replenished by precipitation or irrigation. The key is for farmers to understand the nuances of soil water holding capacity and how to manage it so that the farm does not need to irrigate or suffer from a drought.


What is the best way to increase water holding capacity?

Soil organic matter (SOM) is another factor that can help increase water holding capacity. Soil organic matter has a natural magnetism to water. If the farm increases the percentage of soil organic matter, the soil water holding capacity will increase. SOM is decayed material that originated from a living organism.


When there is a deficit in the amount of water in the soil, the soil profile needs to be

When there is a deficit in the amount water in the soil, the soil profile needs to be replenished by precipitation or irrigation. The key is for farmers to understand the nuances of soil water holding capacity and how to manage it so that the farm does not need to irrigate or suffer from a drought. Soil texture and organic matter are …


What is SOM in farming?

SOM is decayed material that originated from a living organism. SOM can be increased by adding plant or animal material. The question that farmers should ask themselves is, “What can I do to increase the soil water holding capacity on my farm?”.


How does water holding capacity affect meat?

Water-holding capacity is a very complex trait in meat. Many factors influence its development. Processors and researchers need to be aware of how not only the genetics and handling of the live animal impact the production traits but also how they may influence the early postmortem metabolism of the muscle and the subsequent quality of the final product. Future work in this area will likely focus on identifying more genetic markers for improving water-holding capacity. Additionally, live animal and carcass/meat handling procedures and processes need to be refined in order to provide a more consistent product. Further, defining the exact mechanisms in the muscle and early postmortem meat that are responsible for the development of water-holding capacity is needed in order to discover long-term solutions to water-holding capacity problems in meat.


What is the effect of repulsion on water retention?

This repulsion results in increased capacity for water retention and could be compared to the repulsive effect of like charges on two magnets. An increase in predominance of negative protein charges, due to the addition of phosphates, may also cause better distribution of fat particles in emulsified products.


What proteins are involved in WHC?

The main myofibrillar proteins, myosin, actin, tropomyosin, and troponin, are the major muscle components able to retain water in meat. It has been shown that the postmortem events, such as the amplitude and rate of pH decline, proteolysis, and even protein oxidation, are the key factors that influence the WHC of a meat ( Huff-Lonergan and Lonergan, 2005 ). Using a proteomic approach, Hwang (2004) showed a strong relationship between high water losses and the rate of postmortem proteolysis of pig Longissimus dorsi muscle. The author identified four proteins related to WHC: troponin T, adenylate kinase, adenosine triphosphate (AT P)-dependent proteinase SP-22 (currently listed under the name Prdx3), and the DJ-1 protein encoded by PARK7. In another study, van de Wiel and Zhang (2007) analyzed the pork muscle proteome and proposed protein markers related to the processes that may cause water drip loss. The major proteins were creatine phosphokinase type M, desmin, and an activator of transcription. Thus, samples with the highest water losses were characterized by an overabundance of creatine phosphokinase M type, inducing a rapid pH drop and alteration of the rate of muscle contraction. In addition, it was suggested that high levels of desmin observed in samples with lower WHC would increase the lateral shrinkage of myofibrils during the rigor mortis and therefore a modification of the compartmentalization of the water in muscle tissue, leading to considerable water loss. Phongpa-Ngan et al. (2011) analyzed the proteomes of chickens from two extreme groups of WHC (high vs. low) by 2DE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). They revealed five proteins with higher abundance in the group of high WHC and one protein with higher abundance in the low-WHC group. These proteins ( Table 12.2) correspond to metabolic enzymes, such as pyruvate kinase, triosephosphate isomerase, and some Hsps. Yu et al. (2009) analyzed more particularly the involvement of Hsps in the phenomenon of water loss. They tested four Hsps (αB-crystallin, Hsp27, Hsp70, and Hsp90) whose abundance measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of pigs tended to decline after the transport of animals. The authors revealed a close relationship between the decrease of the expression of Hsps and increasing water loss. Di Luca et al. (2013a,b) used 2DE DIGE to identify biomarkers of WHC meat to be ultimately used for industrial purposes. Among 44 proteins showing a modification of abundance during the postmortem period, only the abundance of Hsp70 was found to be related to WHC. Therefore, the authors suggested that Hsp70 chaperone could play a protective role against cleavage and aggregation of proteins.


What is WHC in meat?

WHC is defined as the ability of meat and meat products to bind water (Pearce et al., 2011) during slicing, mincing, and pressing and also during transport, storage, processing, and cooking (Hamm, 1986).


What is salt water uptake?

Salt-induced water uptake measurements are used to assess the ability of fresh poultry meat to hold added salt water, which is an indicator of the potential ability of the meat to pick up and retain marinade in moisture-enhanced products.


How does pH affect meat?

The water-holding capacity of meat is greatly affected by pH. Increasing or decreasing the pH on either side of the pI will result in an increased water-holding capacity by creating a charge imbalance. A charge imbalance is a predominance of either positive or negative charges which will result in a repulsion of the charged protein groups …


Does marinating meat increase water holding capacity?

Preparation of marinated meat creates acidic conditions which enhance the water-holding capacity of muscle proteins by reducing pH below the PI of the protein, increasing polar attraction for water ( Lawrie, 1966 ).


What determines the amount of water available to plants?

The amount of soil water available to plants is governed by the depth of soil that roots can explore (the root zone) and the nature of the soil material. Because the total and available moisture storage capacities are linked to porosity, the particle sizes (texture) and the arrangement of particles (structure) are the critical factors.


How is the amount of water available to plants determined?

The amount of water available to plants is therefore determined by the capillary porosity and is calculated by the difference in moisture content between field capacity and wilting point. This is the total available water storage of the soil. The portion of the total available moisture store, which can be extracted by plants without becoming …


What is the main source of moisture for plants?

Capillary water is held in pores that are small enough to hold water against gravity, but not so tightly that roots cannot absorb it. This water occurs as a film around soil particles and in the pores between them and is the main source of plant moisture. As this water is withdrawn, the larger pores drain first.


How long does water stay in soil after rain?

Plants can only make use of gravitational water for a few days after rain.


Why do clays need water?

Clays store large amounts of water, but because they have high wilting points, they need significant rain to be able to supply water to plants.


What is the function of soil?

One of the main functions of soil is to store moisture and supply it to plants between rainfalls or irrigations. Evaporation from the soil surface, transpiration by plants and deep percolation combine to reduce soil moisture status between water applications. If the water content becomes too low, plants become stressed.


What is the portion of the total available moisture store, which can be extracted by plants without becoming stressed, called?

The portion of the total available moisture store, which can be extracted by plants without becoming stressed, is termed readily available water. Irrigators must have knowledge of the readily available moisture capacity so that water can be applied before plants have to expend excessive energy to extract moisture.


Why is it important to understand the water holding capacity of soil?

Understanding water holding capacities of soil. This is important information for irrigation farmers to decide when to irrigate, but it’s equally important for dryland farmers to understand their soil moisture conditions when deciding on crop input requirements. The amount of water the soil can retain depends on the structure of the soil.


What determines the amount of water available to a crop?

The total amount of water available to a crop depends on the water-holding capacity of a soil (table 1) and the effective root zone depth for each crop. The AD will vary with soil type, crop type, stage of crop growth and effective rooting depth of the crop.


What is the term for the amount of water that plants can use?

Permanent wilting point (PWP) occurs when plants have extracted water to the level that cause plants to wilt and die. The soil water that is between field capacity and wilting point is called plant available water (PAW), which is the amount of water that plants can utilize.


How does moisture affect plants?

When a crop is in a moisture deficit condition during vegetative growth, the first effect is a reduction in the growth rate of leaves and stems. When soil moisture availability is limited, cell expansion and division within the plant slows down.


What is the saturation point of soil?

A soil is at saturation point when all soil pores are filled with water after a saturating rain. Normally, within a day or two, gravity will pull away free water out of the soil profile and the remaining soil water content is then referred to as field capacity (FC).


What is the AD of a soil?

The AD of a soil is the per cent of water that can be removed from a soil between irrigation events without significantly stressing a crop or affecting crop yield or quality. The AD for most crops is about 40 per cent but is less for more sensitive crop such as potato and bean.


What is the term for the percentage of water that can be removed from soil without significantly affecting crop yield?

For irrigation farmers a critical term to understand is allowable depletion (AD), which is the per cent of water that can be removed from soil without significantly affecting crop yield or inducing crop water stress. This water is referred to as the readily available water (RAW).


What is the function of water holding capacity in meat?

Water-holding capacity (WHC) of fresh meat determines the visual acceptability thus influencing the consumers’ willingness to purchase the product. WHC also determines the loss of water during transport, storage, processing, and cooking. Meat juiciness, which is in part determined by WHC, is also an important trait and contributes to eating quality as well as playing a role in texture. Juiciness is a uniquely subjective property of meat.


Why is it important to have good water holding capacity in fish?

Good water-holding capacity in fish is important as it affects both the economic and sensory attributes of the products. There is about 80% water in lean fish muscle and most of it is held within the myofibrils, mainly by capillary forces.


What is the ability of meat to retain its water when external force such as heating, pressing or grinding are applied?

WHC is defined as the ability of meat to retain its water when external force such as heating, pressing or grinding are applied. Much of the water in meat exists in myofibrils by capillary action, and about 5% of water binds to the hydrophilic groups of amino acids in muscle proteins.


Why are proteins with low WHC important?

Proteins with low WHC can be more sensitive to storage humidity. Therefore, selection of proteins with an appropriate WHC is vital in food formulation. However, various intrinsic, extrinsic, and environmental factors such as pH, ionic strength, and temperature affect the WHC of proteins.


What is the function of WHC in protein?

Water holding capacity (WHC) is the ability of proteins to prevent water from being released or expelled from their three-dimensional structure (Hermansson, 1986; Zayas, 1997b ). WHC plays an important role in developing food texture, especially in comminuted meat products and baked dough ( Zayas, 1997b ). Protein ingredients with very high WHC may …


What is water binding capacity?

In this case, water-binding capacity becomes the ability of the meat to bind extra water added to a product. Water absorption or gelling capacity may be defined as the ability of meat to absorb water spontaneously from an aqueous environment. The basic mechanism is the effect of pH on the myofilament lattice.


What is WHC in meat?

Water-holding capacity (WHC) refers to the ability of meat to hold inherent or added moisture throughout fabrication, processing, and storage. For consumers, poor WHC in fresh poultry-meat products results in diminished visual appeal due to excess purge in packages and inferior palatability traits related to juiciness and tenderness. For processors, improved WHC in raw poultry meat leads to greater marinade pick-up and retention, better protein functionality, and greater processing and cooking yields.

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