what was the agricultural revolution during the neolithic age



The Neolithic


The Neolithic, the final division of the Stone Age, began about 12,000 years ago when the first developments of farming appeared in the Epipalaeolithic Near East, and later in other parts of the world. The division lasted until the transitional period of the Chalcolithic from about 6,500 years ago, marked by the development of metallurgy, leading up to the Bronze Age and Iron Age. In Northern Europe, the N…

Revolution, or the (First) Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly large population possible.

The Neolithic Revolution, or the (First) Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly large population possible.


What is the Neolithic Revolution and why is it important?

 · The Neolithic Revolution—also referred to as the Agricultural Revolution—is thought to have begun about 12,000 years ago. It coincided with the end of the last ice age and the beginning of the…

What caused the Neolithic Revolution?

 · About 10,000 years ago, humans adopted an agrarian lifestyle in what is known as the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution. Discover early humans’ nomadic lifestyles, the causes and implications of an…

What was farming like in the Neolithic Age?

The Neolithic Agricultural Revolution was a crucial era in man’s history. Once man learned how to domesticate animals, settle in permanent communities and grow his own food, his potential for development and productivity increased dramatically. Man learned how to use animals not only for their hide, milk and meat, but they also learned how to use animals for labor.

What were the long term effects of the Neolithic Revolution?

The change that occurred during the Neolithic Revolution was a major turning point, causing a shift from the Paleolithic Era to the Neolithic Era, changing the course of human history. The Neolithic Revolution, also known as the first Agricultural Revolution, was a dramatic and wide reaching change in the way that humans lived.


What was the Agricultural Revolution Neolithic Revolution?

The Neolithic Revolution, also called the Agricultural Revolution, marked the transition in human history from small, nomadic bands of hunter-gatherers to larger, agricultural settlements and early civilization.

What was the Agricultural Revolution?

The agricultural revolution is the name given to a number of cultural transformations that initially allowed humans to change from a hunting and gathering subsistence to one of agriculture and animal domestications.

How did the Neolithic Revolution affect agriculture?

As these early farmers became better at cultivating food, they may have produced surplus seeds and crops that required storage. This would have both spurred population growth because of more consistent food availability and required a more settled way of life with the need to store seeds and tend crops.

What are 3 Effects of the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution?

Effects of the Neolithic Revolution on Society The traditional view is that the shift to agricultural food production supported a denser population, which in turn supported larger sedentary communities, the accumulation of goods and tools, and specialization in diverse forms of new labor.

What is the Agricultural Revolution and why is it important?

The Agricultural Revolution of the 18th century paved the way for the Industrial Revolution in Britain. New farming techniques and improved livestock breeding led to amplified food production. This allowed a spike in population and increased health. The new farming techniques also led to an enclosure movement.

What caused Agricultural Revolution?

The first was caused by humans changing from being hunter-gatherers to farmers and herders. The second was caused by improvements to livestock breeding, farming equipment, and crop rotation. The third was caused by plant breeding and new techniques in irrigation, fertilization, and pesticides.

What was the first Agricultural Revolution?

First Agricultural Revolution (circa 10,000 BC), the prehistoric transition from hunting and gathering to settled agriculture (also known as the Neolithic Revolution)

Which of the following caused the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution?

The Earth entered a warming trend around 14,000 years ago at the end of the last Ice Age. Some scientists theorize that climate changes drove the Agricultural Revolution.

Where did the Agricultural Revolution start?

Britainagricultural revolution, gradual transformation of the traditional agricultural system that began in Britain in the 18th century.

What were the 2 major causes of the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution?

Various social and economic factors helped drive the need for food. The evolutionary/intentionality theory proposes that agriculture is an evolutionary adaptation of plants and humans. Domestication of wild plants started by protecting them. Later, the location where to grow them was chosen more carefully.

What was an important result of the Neolithic Revolution?

Beginnings of permanent settlements, sedentary farming, longer life expectancy, and population increases were important results of the Neolithic Revolution.

What are 3 facts about the Neolithic Revolution?

10 Facts About the Neolithic AgeStone Tools First Appeared.Crafts First Appeared. … Humans Settled In Permanent Villages For The First Time. … Humans Domesticated Animals For The First Time. … It Transformed Human Life In Massive Ways. … It Began In The Levant. … It Was When Farming Began. … It Is Also Called “New Stone Age” … More items…•


Why settle down?

Though the exact dates and reasons for the transition are debated, evidence of a move away from hunting and gathering and toward agriculture has been documented worldwide. Farming is thought to have happened first in the Fertile Crescent of the Middle East, where multiple groups of people developed the practice independently.

Animal domestication

As humans began to experiment with farming, they also started domesticating animals. Evidence of sheep and goat herding has been found in Iraq and Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) as far back as about 12,000 years ago.

What was the Neolithic Revolution?

e. The Neolithic Revolution, or the ( First) Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly large population possible .

Where did the Neolithic Revolution originate?

Andrew Moore suggested that the Neolithic Revolution originated over long periods of development in the Levant, possibly beginning during the Epipaleolithic. In “A Reassessment of the Neolithic Revolution”, Frank Hole further expanded the relationship between plant and animal domestication.

What animals were domesticated in the Middle East?

The Middle East served as the source for many animals that could be domesticated, such as sheep, goats and pigs. This area was also the first region to domesticate the dromedary. Henri Fleisch discovered and termed the Shepherd Neolithic flint industry from the Bekaa Valley in Lebanon and suggested that it could have been used by the earliest nomadic shepherds. He dated this industry to the Epipaleolithic or Pre-Pottery Neolithic as it is evidently not Paleolithic, Mesolithic or even Pottery Neolithic. The presence of these animals gave the region a large advantage in cultural and economic development. As the climate in the Middle East changed and became drier, many of the farmers were forced to leave, taking their domesticated animals with them. It was this massive emigration from the Middle East that later helped distribute these animals to the rest of Afroeurasia. This emigration was mainly on an east–west axis of similar climates, as crops usually have a narrow optimal climatic range outside of which they cannot grow for reasons of light or rain changes. For instance, wheat does not normally grow in tropical climates, just like tropical crops such as bananas do not grow in colder climates. Some authors, like Jared Diamond, have postulated that this east–west axis is the main reason why plant and animal domestication spread so quickly from the Fertile Crescent to the rest of Eurasia and North Africa, while it did not reach through the north–south axis of Africa to reach the Mediterranean climates of South Africa, where temperate crops were successfully imported by ships in the last 500 years. Similarly, the African Zebu of central Africa and the domesticated bovines of the fertile-crescent – separated by the dry sahara desert – were not introduced into each other’s region.

How did the Neolithic Revolution affect human nutrition?

The Neolithic Revolution greatly narrowed the diversity of foods available, resulting in a downturn in the quality of human nutrition. The Neolithic Revolution involved far more than the adoption of a limited set of food-producing techniques.

What were the first crops that Daniel Zohary identified?

Daniel Zohary identified several plant species as “pioneer crops” or Neolithic founder crops. He highlighted the importance of wheat, barley and rye, and suggested that domestication of flax, peas, chickpeas, bitter vetch and lentils came a little later.

How fast did the Neolithic dispersal of the Near East spread?

The dispersal rate amounts to about 0.6 km per year

How long did it take for the Neolithic to spread to Europe?

The diffusion across Europe, from the Aegean to Britain, took about 2,500 years (8500–6000 BP). The Baltic region was penetrated a bit later, around 5500 BP, and there was also a delay in settling the Pannonian plain. In general, colonization shows a “saltatory” pattern, as the Neolithic advanced from one patch of fertile alluvial soil to another, bypassing mountainous areas. Analysis of radiocarbon dates show clearly that Mesolithic and Neolithic populations lived side by side for as much as a millennium in many parts of Europe, especially in the Iberian peninsula and along the Atlantic coast.

How long have humans been around?

Humans as we know them have been walking around for about 200,000 years. Yet despite having bigger brains and finer hands, we continued to behave as our predecessors had. This was a nomadic lifestyle, following herds and gathering wild plants and fruits along the way. Then about 10,000 years ago, we came to a divide. On this side we had the nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyle we’d always known. On the far side we had settled agriculture. The differences between these two are simple, but, as we shall see, they have lasting implications.

How do we compare a Roman soldier to a Gallic warrior?

It should be clear by now how settled farmers ended up displacing nomads. But just for fun, let us compare a Roman soldier to a Gallic worrier from the time prior to their interaction with the Roman Empire. The Gallic warrior grew up eating nutritious meat, allowing him to reach his full growth potential. The Roman soldier, with his diet of bread and olives, seems malnourished by comparison. He’s small, he’s fat and it looks like he’s going to get creamed. But because agriculturalists can support a larger population, there are more Roman soldiers than Gallic warriors. Moreover, they’re all specialists. Freed from the need to feed themselves, they have spent all their time mastering the art of soldiering. Because they’re all specialists, they can develop new technologies. They can also focus a lot more on military tactics which will give them an advantage in battles. The Gallic warrior doesn’t stand a chance. This sort of dominance would be impossible without the massive surpluses of food derived from the Neolithic agricultural revolution.

Why can one farmer feed several people?

And because one farmer can feed several people, this makes possible the division of labor. Now instead of every man being a hunter-gatherer concerned only with getting enough food for himself, now one can be a baker, another a carpenter, another a soldier.

Why was the division of labor made possible?

The division of labor was made possible because one farmer can feed several people. Yet there are other effects of agriculture besides mere survival. The most obvious is that when you have more food you can make more people. And because one farmer can feed several people, this makes possible the division of labor.

Where did the agricultural revolution begin?

This occurred first in the “ Fertile Crescent ” or Mesopotamia, in what is now modern day Iraq. From a geographic standpoint, this a perfectly logical area for the Agricultural Revolution to begin, because of the fertile soil the region offers. This valley was also between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, therefore irrigation systems could be set …

What was the first agricultural revolution?

The Neolithic Revolution: The First Agricultural Revolution. The change that occurred during the Neolithic Revolution was a major turning point, causing a shift from the Paleolithic Era to the Neolithic Era, changing the course of human history. The Neolithic Revolution, also known as the first Agricultural Revolution, …

What river was used to set up irrigation systems in the Neolithic era?

This valley was also between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers , therefore irrigation systems could be set up with ease. The document from The Agricultural Systems of the World by D. B. Grigg summarizes how different cultures around the world utilized agriculture, and changes in agriculture that occurred during the Neolithic Revolution.

What were the people of the Paleolithic era?

During the Paleolithic Age, people were hunter-gatherers, who relied on foraging and hunting for food. However, during the Neolithic Age, the practices of agriculture and the domestication of animals were utilized.

What was the agricultural branch of farming that included domestication and herding of animals?

Pastoralism- The agricultural branch of farming that includes the domestication and herding of animals. Pastoralism caused people from the Paleolithic era to change to the Neolithic era, because it was a new way of surviving and caused a sort of “Enlightenment of survival”. Kinship Groups-A group of families traveling together. In mainly the Paleolithic era it made a tighter community for people so they could survive more efficiently. Plows-Farming implements that cut furrows into the soil in order to prepare the soil for the planting of seeds.…

How did the agricultural revolution change the world?

The first, most prominent step toward change that occurred during the Agricultural Revolution was the change in the way that people acquired food. During the Paleolithic Age, people were hunter-gatherers, …

How did the agricultural revolution affect the population?

The Agricultural Revolution increased not only the population as a whole , but also productivity. According to the text, it is stated that the population shot up tremendously after the Agricultural Revolution had taken place. “Human dominance over other forms of life on the planet” took place after the Agricultural Revolution. (Strayer 37) The Agricultural Revolution was very important because of how “forests and grasslands became cultivated fields and grazing lands.” (Strayer 37) The life of a farmer did require a person to live a settled life. The European civilization experienced an accelerating change with the use of agriculture.…

How many acres were there in the agricultural revolution?

Between 1604 and 1914, over 5,200 individual acts were put into place, enclosing 6.8 million acres. Agricultural Revolution: The unprecedented increase in agricultural production in Britain due to increases in labor and land productivity between the mid-17th and late 19th centuries.

What were the new agricultural practices?

The Agricultural Revolution, the unprecedented increase in agricultural production in Britain between the mid-17th and late 19th centuries, was linked to such new agricultural practices as crop rotation, selective breeding, and a more productive use of arable land.

Why is rotation important for crops?

Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar types of crops in the same area in sequential seasons to help restore plant nutrients and mitigate the build-up of pathogens and pests that often occurs when one plant species is continuously cropped . Rotation can also improve soil structure and fertility by alternating deep-rooted and shallow-rooted plants. The Norfolk System, as it is now known, rotates crops so that different crops are planted with the result that different kinds and quantities of nutrients are taken from the soil as the plants grow. An important feature of the Norfolk four-field system was that it used labor at times when demand was not at peak levels. Planting cover crops such as turnips and clover was not permitted under the common field system because they interfered with access to the fields and other people’s livestock could graze the turnips.

What crops were planted in the Middle Ages?

Following a two-field crop rotation system common in the Middle Ages and a three-year three field crop rotation routine employed later, the regular planting of legumes such as peas and beans in the fields that were previously fallow became central and slowly restored the fertility of some croplands.

Where did the Dutch plough come from?

The Dutch plough was brought to Britain by Dutch contractors. In 1730, Joseph Foljambe in Rotherham, England, used new shapes as the basis for the Rotherham plough, which also covered the moldboard with iron. By 1770, it was the cheapest and best plough available. It spread to Scotland, America, and France.

How did legumes help plants grow?

The planting of legumes helped to increase plant growth in the empty field due to the bacteria on legume roots’ ability to fix nitrogen from the air into the soil in a form that plants could use . Other crops that were occasionally grown were flax and members of the mustard family.

Why is crop rotation important?

It helps in reducing soil erosion and increases soil fertility and crop yield.

What was the agricultural revolution?

This time, known as the Agricultural Revolution, would truly revolutionize how humans lived their lives.

When did the Neolithic Age begin?

The Neolithic Age began around 12,000 years ago and ended as civilizations started to rise around 3500 BCE. The term Neolithic comes from two words: neo, or new, and lithic, or stone. As such, this time period is sometimes referred to as the New Stone Age. Humans in the Neolithic Age still used stone tools and weapons, …

Why did agriculture develop in Africa?

In Africa and the Americas, agriculture also developed, but because of the different climactic zones on the two continents’ north-south axis, it developed in a more scattered fashion. Domestication of plants and animals was very important. In the process, humans started to actually alter their evolution.

What tools did humans use in the Neolithic Age?

There’s evidence of initial metallurgy as well, and also creating more pottery. But what really distinguishes the New Stone Age from the Old Stone Age, or Paleolithic Age, that preceded it, is a very important characteristic …

What was the most important development in human history?

However, agriculture was one of the most important developments in all of human history, which occurred during what historians call the Neolithic Age. Let’s define this period, and look into some of its characteristics, paying special attention to the Agricultural Revolution.

How did the Agricultural Revolution help civilizations?

It all worked, though, as a food surplus from the Agricultura l Revolution helped lay the foundations for later civilizations . So, the next time you go to the grocery store, remember how important it was to human societies that we developed agriculture so many thousands of years ago.

What were the negatives of agriculture?

Even though agriculture brought with it a steady supply of food, there were also negative characteristics. For one, humans could experience famine if their crops were wiped out by erratic flooding or bad storms. Also, remains show that humans actually got shorter with the advent of agriculture, and had a shorter life expectancy at first.

When did the Neolithic start?

Following the ASPRO chronology, the Neolithic started in around 10,200 BC in the Levant, arising from the Natufian culture, when pioneering use of wild cereals evolved into early farming. The Natufian period or “proto-Neolithic” lasted from 12,500 to 9,500 BC, and is taken to overlap with the Pre-Pottery Neolithic ( PPNA) of 10,200–8800 BC. As the Natufians had become dependent on wild cereals in their diet, and a sedentary way of life had begun among them, the climatic changes associated with the Younger Dryas (about 10,000 BC) are thought to have forced people to develop farming.

What was the major advance of Neolithic 1?

The major advance of Neolithic 1 was true farming. In the proto-Neolithic Natufian cultures, wild cereals were harvested, and perhaps early seed selection and re-seeding occurred. The grain was ground into flour. Emmer wheat was domesticated, and animals were herded and domesticated ( animal husbandry and selective breeding ).

What are Neolithic artifacts?

An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools.

What was the first development of Mesopotamia?

Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. Early Neolithic farming was limited to a narrow range of plants, both wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat, millet and spelt, and the keeping of dogs, sheep and goats.

How long did the Neolithic period last?

In Northern Europe, the Neolithic lasted until about 1700 BCE, while in China it extended until 1200 BCE. Other parts of the world (including Oceania and the northern regions of the Americas) remained broadly in the Neolithic stage of development until European contact.

What is the Neolithic period?

The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age, with a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to have arisen independently in several parts of the world.

What was the first form of food production in Africa?

In contrast to the Neolithic in other parts of the world, which saw the development of farming societies, the first form of African food production was mobile pastoralism, or ways of life centered on the herding and management of livestock. The term “Pastoral Neolithic” is used most often by archaeologists to describe early pastoralist periods in the Sahara, as well as in eastern Africa.


The Neolithic Revolution, or the (First) Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly large population possible. These settled communities permitted humans to observe and experiment with plants, learning how they grew and de…


Hunter-gatherers had different subsistencerequirements and lifestyles from agriculturalists. They were often highly mobile, living in temporary shelters, moving in small groups, and having limited contact with outsiders. Their diet was well-balanced and depended on what the environment provided each season. Because the advent of agriculture made it possible to support larger groups, agriculturalists lived in more permanent dwellings in areas that were more densely popu…

Agricultural transition

The term ‘neolithic revolution’ was coined by V. Gordon Childe in his 1936 book Man Makes Himself. Childe introduced it as the first in a series of agricultural revolutions in Middle Eastern history, calling it a “revolution” to denote its significance, the degree of change to communities adopting and refining agricultural practices.

Early harvesting of cereals (23,000 BP)

Use-wear analysis of five glossed flint blades found at Ohalo II, a 23,000-years-old fisher-hunter-gatherers’ camp on the shore of the Sea of Galilee, Northern Israel, provides the earliest evidence for the use of composite cereal harvesting tools. The Ohalo site is at the junction of the Upper Paleolithic and the Early Epipaleolithic, and has been attributed to both periods.

Domestication of plants

Once agriculture started gaining momentum, around 9000 BP, human activity resulted in the selective breeding of cereal grasses (beginning with emmer, einkorn and barley), and not simply of those that favoured greater caloric returns through larger seeds. Plants with traits such as small seeds or bitter taste were seen as undesirable. Plants that rapidly shed their seeds on maturity tended n…

Development and diffusion

Agriculture appeared first in Southwest Asia about 2,000 years later, around 10,000–9,000 years ago. The region was the centre of domestication for three cereals (einkorn wheat, emmer wheat and barley), four legumes (lentil, pea, bitter vetch and chickpea), and flax. Domestication was a slow process that unfolded across multiple regions, and was preceded by centuries if not millenniaof …

Domestication of animals

When hunter-gathering began to be replaced by sedentary food production it became more efficient to keep animals close at hand. Therefore, it became necessary to bring animals permanently to their settlements, although in many cases there was a distinction between relatively sedentary farmers and nomadic herders. The animals’ size, temperament, diet, mating patterns, and life span w…


Despite the significant technological advance, the Neolithic revolution did not lead immediately to a rapid growth of population. Its benefits appear to have been offset by various adverse effects, mostly diseases and warfare.
The introduction of agriculture has not necessarily led to unequivocal progress. The nutritional standards of the growing Neolithic populations were inferior to …

Leave a Comment