The emperor promoted agriculture by reducing taxes, encouraging the cultivation of new lands, and creating laws that safeguarded the property of peasants. He also outlawed private slavery and seized lands controlled by large estates. He forbade free movements in the empire and designated hereditary occupational categories to households.
What reforms did Hongwu make during his reign?
The Hongwu reign was noted for his unprecedented political reforms. He abolished the position of chancellor, drastically reduced the role of court eunuchs, and cracked down on corruption with draconian measures.
What were some of Hong Kong’s agricultural reforms?
What were some of Hongwus agricultural reforms? increased rice production introduced fish farming, commercial crops such as sugar improved irrigation Why was only the gov. allowed to conduct foreign trade?
Why did Hongwu give young farmers land in Hunan?
In 1370, Hongwu ordered that some lands in Hunan and Anhui should be given to young farmers who had reached adulthood. The order was intended to prevent landlords from seizing the land, as it also decreed that the titles to the lands were not transferable.
How was rural China organized under the Hongwu dynasty?
Under the Hongwu reign, rural China was reorganized into li ( 里 ), communities of 110 households. The position of community chief rotates among the ten most populous households, while the rest were further divided into tithings ( jia, 甲).
How did the Dutch establish their own trade in Asia?
Establishes their own trade in Asia by keeping out the English. Funded the Dutch company Dominance over region.
What did the Daymios do to change the Samurai culture?
Introduced firearms, it changed samurai traditions. also introduced canons this made the Daymios build fortified castles so many of the people went to live around the castles so there bigger cities.
How many voyages did the Chinese lead?
He was a Chinese admiral, led all 7 voyages.
What did Hongwu do to the poor?
As Hongwu came from a peasant family, he was aware of how peasants used to suffer under the oppression of the scholar-bureaucrats, and the wealthy. Many of the latter, relying on their connections with government officials, encroached unscrupulously on peasants’ lands and bribed the officials to transfer the burden of taxation to the poor. To prevent such abuse, he instituted two systems: Yellow Records and Fish Scale Records. They served both to secure the government’s income from land taxes and to affirm that peasants would not lose their lands.
How did Hongwu achieve his goal?
Hongwu attempted, and largely succeeded in, the consolidation of control over all aspects of government, so that no other group could gain enough power to overthrow him. He also buttressed the country’s defense against the Mongols. He increasingly concentrated power in his own hands. He abolished the Chancellor ‘s post, which had been head of the main central administrative body under past dynasties, by suppressing a plot for which he had blamed his chancellor Hu Weiyong. Many argue that Hongwu, because of his wish to concentrate absolute authority in his own hands, removed the only insurance against incompetent emperors.
Why did trade increase during the Hongwu era?
On the contrary, commerce increased significantly during the Hongwu era because of the growth of industry throughout the empire. This growth in trade was due in part to poor soil conditions and the overpopulation of certain areas, which forced many people to leave their homes and seek their fortunes in trade. A book titled Tu Pien Hsin Shu, written during the Ming dynasty, gave a detailed description of the activities of merchants at that time.
Why did Hongwu remove Mencius from the Temple of Confucius?
Hongwu tried to remove Mencius from the Temple of Confucius as certain parts of his work were deemed harmful . These include “the people are the most important element in a nation; the spirits of the land and grain are the next; the sovereign is the lightest” ( Mengzi, Jin Xin II ), as well as, “when the prince regards the ministers as the ground or as grass, they regard him as a robber and an enemy” ( Mengzi, Li Lou II ). The effort failed due to the objection from important officials, particularly Qian Tang ( 錢唐 ), Minister of Justice. Eventually, the emperor organized the compilation of the Mencius Abridged ( 孟子節文) in which 85 lines were deleted. Apart from those mentioned above, the omitted sentences also included those describing rules of governance, promoting benevolence, and those critical of King Zhou of Shang.
What were the changes that the Hongwu Emperor made?
The emperor abolished the position of chancellor, drastically reduced the role of court eunuchs, and adopted draconian measures to address corruption. He also established the Embroidered Uniform Guard, one of the best known secret police organizations in imperial China. In the 1380s and 1390s a series of purges were launched to eliminate his high-ranked officials and generals; tens of thousands were executed. The reign of Hongwu also witnessed much cruelty. Various cruel methods of execution was introduced for punishable crimes and for those who directly criticized the emperor, and massacres were also carried out against everyone who resisted his rule.
Why did the Hongwu era have to restore copper coins?
Not understanding inflation, Hongwu gave out so much paper money as rewards that by 1425, the state was forced to restore copper coins because the paper currency had sunk to only 1/70 of its original value.
What were the methods of execution in the Ming Dynasty?
Ming’s legal system established by Hongwu contains various methods of execution including flaying, and slow slicing. One of his generals, Chang Yuchun, carried out massacres in Shandong and Hunan provinces to take revenge against people who resisted his army. Over time, Hongwu became increasingly fearful of rebellions and coups, and also ordered the execution of those of his advisors who criticized him. Manicheanism and the White Lotus Sect, which played significant roles during the revolts against the Yuan, were outlawed. He was also said to have ordered the massacre of several thousand people living in Nanjing after having heard one talked about him without respect. In the Hu Weiyong case alone, tens of thousands of officials and their families were executed over sedition, treason, corruption and other charges. According to an anecdote noted by Ming dynasty writers, in 1380, after much killing, a lightning bolt struck his palace and he stopped the massacres for some time, as he was afraid divine forces would punish him. In the 1390s, however, tens of thousands more people were executed due to their association with an alleged plot of rebellion by general Lan Yu.
How did the Chinese ruler attempt to expand China’s tribute system?
This Chinese ruler attempted to expand China’s tribute system by sponsoring voyages of exploration.
Which country followed Chinese rules while the British refused to “kowtow”?
The Dutch followed Chinese rules while the British refused to “kowtow”.
What offended Confucian beliefs?
The idea of commerce offended Confucian beliefs, and taxes on manufactured goods were high.
What were the effects of foreign trade on the world?
Foreign trade led to smuggling, increase in commerce and manufacturing, and the introduction of Christianity and European inventions.
Who was allowed to trade with foreign countries?
Only the government was allowed to trade with foreign countries.
How many voyages did Zheng He do?
The Chinese Muslim explorer ZHENG HE led seven voyages of exploration that ranged from southeast Asia to eastern Africa.
What reforms did the Hongwu Emperor institute?
During his reign, the Hongwu emperor instituted military, administrative, and educational reforms that centred power in the emperor.
When was Hongwu unified?
The rest of the country fell easily as Ming troops subdued first the northwest, then the southwest (Sichuan and Yunnan). Unification was completed by 1382. The Hongwu emperor was cruel, suspicious, and irrational, especially as he grew older. Instead of eliminating Mongol influence, he made his court resemble the Mongol court, …
What did Zhu Yuangzhang learn?
Some decided to join his movement, and Zhu had the foresight to seek their guidance. From them he learned the rudiments of the Chinese language and studied Chinese history and the Confucian Classics . More significantly, he learned the principles of government and built up an effective administration in local areas alongside the military structure. Moreover, he was persuaded by his scholars to present himself as a national leader against the Mongols rather than as a popular rebel. His choice of advisers and his shrewd ability to adopt sound governmental measures ultimately made him the most formidable leader against the Mongols.
How did Han die in 1367?
Escorted by one of Zhu’s men during the trip, Han died by drowning when his boat capsized —an event perhaps contrived by Zhu. In the same year Zhang Shicheng was captured and brought to Nanjing, where he committed suicide. Other rebels decided to submit or were eliminated. One such was Fang Guozhen, one of the first to rebel against the Mongols, who had operated as a pirate along the coast; when he surrendered to Zhu, he was given honours and a stipend but no real power. On the other hand, Chen Youting, a Yuan loyalist who protected Fujian province (on the southeast coast, opposite Taiwan), was captured and brought to Nanjing for execution.
What was Nanjing’s strategic point?
Nanjing was a strategic point, close to the rich lands of the Yangtze delta. Proclaiming himself duke of Wu, Zhu established an effective administration over the Nanjing area with the help of the scholars and on their advice refrained from roaming aimlessly from place to place to plunder.
Who captured Chuzhou?
In 1353 Zhu Yuanzhang captured Chuzhou (now in Anhui province, northwest of Nanjing). Subsequently he received important commissions, gaining a following of outstanding men, some of whom later became officials under the early Ming dynasty. In 1355 Guo Zixing died, and Zhu Yuanzhang took over the leadership of the rebel army.
What provinces did the Ming conquer?
The troops sent to conquer the north were highly successful. Shandong and Henan provinces submitted to Ming authority. By August 1368, Ming troops had entered the Yuan capital of Dadu (later renamed Beijing ). The Mongol emperor Shundi fled to Inner Mongolia, and, although Mongol power was not immediately destroyed, historically the Yuan dynasty now came to an end. The rest of the country fell easily as Ming troops subdued first the northwest, then the southwest (Sichuan and Yunnan). Unification was completed by 1382.