- 1 How to Grow Wheat? Farming Guide & Tips
- 2 Health Benefits of Wheat
- 3 Major Wheat Producer in World
- 4 Wheat Varieties
- 5 How to Start Cultivation?
- 6 How is Wheat Grown?
- 7 Irrigation in Wheat Farming
- 8 Application of Manure & Fertilizers in Wheat Farming
- 9 Pests and Diseases in Wheat Farming
- 10 Harvesting in Wheat Farming
- 11 Yield of Wheat Farming
How to Grow Wheat? Farming Guide & Tips
Little About Wheat Production
With the ease of increasing population, the food requirement of the world is also increasing rapidly. And, Wheat is very important food crop that plays a vital role in meeting the world food requirement. It is believed that they were first grown about 10,000 years ago and are the first plants which are cultivated for food. Wheat is also healthy and nutritious food that is beneficiary in keeping us healthy. And most of the people use to grow only little stock of it to meet only their own food requirement.
In the Asian continent, the European continent, and the African continent, wheat farming or growing wheat had spread by about 4,000 B.C. And, with the increasing popularity across the world, new variety of wheat had been created to increase the production capacity and quality of food.
Usually, farmers select kernels for growing it from their own & best wheat plants, which he had grown the previous year. And, this growing method of traditional growers passes the quality seeds from one generation to the next.
And, presently, this food crop is the most important food crop in the world. Which helps in meeting the total food requirement of the world. In the world, China tops the list of major wheat production list throughout the world.
Wheat is best cereal grain. Since they contain higher protein than other cereal foods like maize, rice, etc. And, is supposed as the best staple foods of today’s world.
It is also used in the preparation of many food items like bread, biscuit, breakfast, cereal, cookies, cakes, pasta, noodles, couscous, etc In the industrial world, it is used to making of biofuels and flavored alcoholic beverages.
Scientific Name of Wheat or botanical name of wheat is Triticum aestivum which belongs to the family Poaceae and to the genus Triticum L.
Growing grains crops is very easy and fun providing too! They can be grown as winter crop as well also as a spring crop. Since wheat is the major source of vegetable protein, it is the best idea to grow them commercially and make a gold bar from it.
So, let us learn about “how to grow wheat” in the following article.
Health Benefits of Wheat
Wheat is major cereal food crop that plays a vital role in meeting the total food need. It is also supposed as the best staple food of current world amongst the food grain crops. Here is a list of some health benefits of wheat:
- Wheat has a natural tendency to control weight effectively, particularly for women’s
- The omega 3 fats contents of wheat lower cardiovascular disease risk to a great extent.
- It protects against visceral obesity, low levels of protective LDL cholesterol, high triglycerides, and also from high blood pressure.
- Wheat is an excellent source of minerals, vitamins, and dietary fibers. That is, it is beneficial to us in keeping healthy and happy by protecting us.
- Wheat contains betaine content which is beneficial in the blocking of chronic inflammation.
- It also lowers the risk of many common diseases such as heart diseases, osteoporosis, cognitive decline, Alzheimer’s disease, and also type-2 diabetes.
- High consumption of wheat is found to be beneficial in boosting insulin sensitivity and hence lowers triglycerides & fat content in the blood.
- It is a phrase in local that 3 cups of wheat eating per day is good enough for an individual to stay healthy and live a long, and a life – free from any kind of disease.
- Wheat has significant property and can act as an anti-carcinogenic agent, especially for women’s.
- It also cut down possibilities of having a colon cancer, breast cancer, etc.
- It also can cure the childhood asthma problems. Since are fully loaded with many minerals and vitamins.
- Wheat is best for getting rid of Postmenopausal and can remove all of it Symptoms.
So, eating wheat is the best choice rather than going for any other cereal crop. Since it is best in keeping us healthy, happy and a disease-free life to live longer…
Other Names of Wheat
Wheat (English), Gehun (Hindi), गहूँ (Nepali), 小麦 & xiǎomài (Chinese), コムギ (Japanese), Weizen (German), Arupa (Sanskrit), Улаан буудай (Mongolian), grurë (Albanian), Σιτάρι & sitári (Greek), pčénica (Macedonian), Qamħ (Maltese), තිරිඟු (Sinhalese), Pšenice (Czech), Vetesläktet (Swedish), Cruithneacht (Irish), mil (Korean), Ngano (Swahili), Blé (French), 小麦 (Cantonese), ხორბალი & ȟorbali (Georgian), Hveiti (Icelandic), Búza (Hungarian), Hvede (Danish), qamḥ (Arabic), Ukolo (Zulu), ḥīṭah (Hebrew), Triticum (Italian), Trigo (Portuguese, & Spanish), Vehnät (Finnish), gyum (Burmese), pšeníca (Bulgarian), Ցորեն ( Armenian), Buğday (Turkish), Blat (Catalan), Hvete (Norwegian), ข้าวสาลี & kâao săa-lee (Thai), Tarwe (Dutch), pšenica (Bosnian), Gwenith (Welsh), Kvieši (Latvian), 小麥 (Taiwanese), Pszenica (Polish), Lúa mì ( Vietnamese), Pokok Gandum (Malay), Koring (Afrikaans), Nisu (Estonian), Pšenica (Croatian), ស្រូវសាលី (Cambodian), Grâu (Romanian),
Major Wheat Producer in World
It can be grown all over the world. However, when it comes to production, China tops the list, followed by India and The United States.
The following is the list of 10 countries, who produce this food grain widely.
- The United States
When it comes to variety, a variety of production plays a very important role in the wheat production. Since the growing conditions vary from cultivar to cultivar. And, each significant cultivar is known for growing is particular region and climate conditions.
So, it is better to learn the suitability of the selected cultivar. So, that you can learn whether it will help you in higher production or not?
How to Start Cultivation?
Climate Requirements for Wheat farming
This cereal food crop can be grown anywhere in the world, with little care of soil pH and growing climate condition. Since having wide growing adaptability, can grow well in the tropical region, subtropical region, temperate zone along with the cold tracts of the far north, exceeding the 60 degrees north latitude.
However, a cool and dry weather climate is best for excellent crop growth and higher food production. With an annual rainfall of 1000 mm to 1500 mm in growing area.
The ideal temp for good crop growth is 12 °C to 22 °C during the growing period. But, do note that low temp, frost conditions, hot and humid climate during growing period. Such conditions during growing period lead to the reduction in production in a significant way.
Note: Hot and Humid climate conditions promote diseases in crop like rust, root rot, etc
Best Soil For Wheat
Wheat can be grown over a wide variety of soils. However, a drained and clayey loamy soil having good soil fertility is considered as the best suitable for wheat production. And, soil should have a facility of good aeration along with good water holding capacity for growing under irrigated conditions. But, cultivating on lighter soil with less soil fertility, all the essential nutrients should be supplied to increase production.
And, for growing under rainfed wheat crop, heavy soils having an open structure are best. Since they have higher tendency to retain rainwater for a longer time. Especially, the black soils are best for optimum food production.
The ideal soil pH for growing wheat is 6.5 to 7.2 for optimum yield.
Land Preparation For Wheat Farming
In preparing the field for wheat production, seedbed (a well-pulverized) should be prepared. This can be done by giving 2 deep plowing followed by 2 harrowing.
Weed and other extra material like the rock from the field should be discarded at the time of land preparation.
Also, apply mix Aldrin (5 %) dust in soil @ 25 kg per hectare at the time of the last plowing to protect crop seedling from early pest and diseases like white ants, Gujhia weevil, etc.
Application of 40 kg of Urea is helpful in enhancing seed germination at the time of land preparation.
How is Wheat Grown?
Propagation in Wheat Farming
This cereal food crop is always propagated with the help of quality seeds.
Always select a high quality of wheat seeds and bought it from genuine source for optimum production.
Seed Rate in Wheat Farming
The seed rate in wheat production depends on the selection of selected cultivar for growing and the method of cultivation along with sowing method.
However, About 100 kg of quality seeds per hectare is needed for growing under normal condition. For growing coarse size grain, about 125 kg of seed is required. Whereas try to sow 135 kg seed for late sowing.
Seed Treatment of Selected Quality Seeds
To protect seed germination from an early occurrence of pests and diseases in this crop, seed should be treated well with suitable fertilizer.
So, treat selected seed with 5 kg carbendazim or with 2.5 kg thiram, at least about one day before sowing on the field. This is the best way of preventing the crop from soil-borne diseases and seed-borne diseases.
Sowing of Seeds on Field
The selected quality seeds should be sown on the main field through drilling method or by broadcasting methods.
In the drilling method, the drills attached to the bullocks or to the tractors assure uniform sowing of seeds.
Wheat Planting | Spacing
The planting distance in wheat production depends on the cultivar chosen for production and the method of sowing. However, the ideal spacing of 15 cm to 20 cm should be followed, depending on growing conditions.
However, for late and irrigated wheat crop, a planting distance of 15 cm to 18 cm should be followed for higher production
Wheat Planting | Depth
The planting depth in sowing seeds varies from cultivar to cultivar. For Dwarf cultivars, the planting depth is 5 cm or 6 cm. Whereas for growing tall varieties, the planting depth is 7 cm to 9 cm. However, one can plant it higher depth for growing in dry, rough soils
- Note: Always avoid sowing deep in moist soils for better germination or seedlings.
Irrigation in Wheat Farming
Timely irrigation in a systematic way is very important in commercial production. Avoid water stress at all the crucial stages to increase the production. However, the frequency and interval of irrigations depend on soil moisture, climate conditions, cultivar, and growth stage of the crop.
However, water is not needed for growing this crop under rainfed conditions. The crop grows completely on the residual soil moisture content and dew produced during winter. But, irrigate once or twice, if dry occurs for a long time. Especially, during crown root initiation, flowering stage, etc.
Here is irrigation schedule for wheat production with the facility of irrigation:
- The 1st and foremost irrigations are to be given before 4 days of sowing seeds on the main field to attain better germination.
- The 2nd should be done at the C.R.I (crown root initiation) stage of the crop. Usually, after about 3 to 4 weeks of sowing.
- Then consequent irrigation should be done at all the crucial stage such as late tillering stage, late joining, flowering stage, milk forming stage and dough (grain formation) stage.
Note: Irrigating or providing water at Crown root initiation stage is essential. Because, if not given, it may result in drastically crop yield reduction.
Application of Manure & Fertilizers in Wheat Farming
Wheat crop is very sensitive to application of manure and fertilizers. And, applying at the proper point of growing stage is very crucial in increasing the production to a great extent. So, learn the guide on the application of manure and fertilizers:
- Apply about 20 to 25 tonnes of well rotten farmyard manure per hectare growing land at the time of land preparation and last harrowing to increase soil fertility and productivity.
- For growing it as rainfed crop, the fertilizer doses are 50 kg of Nitrogen, 25 Kg of Phosphorous, and 25 Kg of Potassium per hectare growing land.
- This complete dose of NPK should be given in a single time. And should be given at the time of sowing only.
- However, for growing with the facility of irrigation, this NPK doses change.
- It requires 100 Kg of Nitrogen, 50 Kg of Potash and 50 Kg phosphorous per hectare land.
- This time, the ½ dose of Nitrogen should be given with the full dose of Potassium and Phosphorous. And, it should be applied at the time of sowing.
- While the remaining dose, it should be given after about f weeks of sowing or at the time of 1st irrigation.
Pests and Diseases in Wheat Farming
Wheat Pests and their Management
There are many pests and insects observed in the commercial cultivation of wheat.
Below Ground Pests
- False Wireworms
- White Grubs
Fall & Winter Pests
- Bird Cherry & Oat Aphid
- English Grain Aphid
- Russian Wheat Aphid
- Brown Wheat Mite
- Banks Grass Mite
- Winter Grain Mite
- Wheat Curl Mite
- Army Cutworm
- Pale Western Cutworm
- Fall Armyworm
- Flea Beetles
- Hessian Fly
Late Spring Pests
- Wheat Stem Maggot
- Wheat Head Armyworm
- Wheat Stem Sawfly
Controlling Measures of Wheat Pest
In the market, there are numbers of effective liquid fertilizers are present. So, learn the suitability and dose of application.
Wheat Diseases and Their Control
The common diseases in wheat production are:
- Leaf Rust
- Brown Rust
- Stem Rust
- Loose Smut
- Powdery Mildew
- Stripe Rust &
- Yellow Rust
Harvesting in Wheat Farming
In a very short time, about of 100 days to 120 days, this crop becomes ready for harvesting. But, harvesting at the correct point of maturity is the key to the successful production. Start harvesting, when straw grows dry, fragile and harden grains.
Every cultivar has different maturing age and different harvesting time. Generally, rain-fed crops are harvested little time before then the irrigated grown crop. But, the yield in higher in irrigated grown crops.
When & How to Harvest Wheat Grains?
Harvest matured crop with the help of sickle. Cut the crop and close it to the ground level on the field. However, wheat harvesters are also available, but, can be applied on the large field only.
After harvesting, the crop should be kept for dried off for about 4 days to 5 days on the field or threshing floor. After that, the crop should be threshed through the tractor thresher.
After that, Cleaning, grading, and transporting should be carried out to the local mills at affordable market rates.
But, Grains should be dried off before storing to eliminate moisture content of grains. And, to maintain the quality of grains. Fumigate the storing place and also make it moisture free to avoid the appearance of any kind of pests and insects, later.
Yield of Wheat Farming
The yield of this crop depends on the selected variety, soil type, soil fertility, method of cultivation, growing climate conditions, application of manure and fertilizers, seed treatments and other crop management skills, followed during the production.
On an average, one can easily produce about 5 quintals of grains per hectare (yield per hectare) in rainfed conditions. Whereas this yield increases to more than 10 quintals of grains per hectare in Irrigated conditions.
However, the yield of wheat farming for growing improved varieties in suitable climate conditions is always better than the yield of usual wheat seeds.
Tips to Increase Yield
Follow the give below advise to increase yield:
- Always select a high yielding variety
- And try to grow it in suitable climate conditions and soil requirements
- If facility of irrigation is available, try to go for growing irrigation crop.
- Try to apply a proper dose of manure and fertilizer at the proper point of growth stage.
- Irrigate at every crucial growing stage such as late tillering stage, late joining, flowering stage, milk forming stage and dough (grain formation) stage.
- Additional adding of gypsum, farmyard manure and a higher dose of Nitrogen to the cultivating land is beneficial in increasing grain production.
- Adopt proper controlling measure of pests, insects, and diseases to minimize the production lose.
- Adopt proper wheat planting method and take care of ideal wheat planting distance (spacing), depth, planting method.
- Sowing should be done in the proper season through high yielding quality seeds.
Have A Grand Success in Wheat Grain Production!!!