When did agriculture develop in mesopotamia

image

The regular flooding along the Tigris and the Euphrates made the land around them especially fertile and ideal for growing crops for food. That made it a prime spot for the Neolithic Revolution

Neolithic Revolution
The Neolithic Revolution started around 10,000 B.C. in the Fertile Crescent, a boomerang-shaped region of the Middle East where humans first took up farming. Shortly after, Stone Age humans in other parts of the world also began to practice agriculture.
https://www.history.com › pre-history › neolithic-revolution

, also called the Agricultural Revolution, that began to take place almost 12,000 years ago.Nov 10, 2020

How did agriculture start in Mesopotamia?

Here are eight specialty crops worth growing:

  • Bamboo. Landscapers and homeowners are paying as much as $150 each for potted bamboo plants, and many growers are finding it hard to keep up with the demand.
  • Flowers.
  • Ginseng.
  • Ground Covers.
  • Herbs.
  • Landscaping Trees and Shrubs.
  • Mushrooms.
  • Ornamental Grasses.

What are some farming improvements of Mesopotamia?

​What were the consequences/RESULTS of early agriculture in Mesopotamia?

  • Invention of writing (Cuneiform) and Arithmetic for better farming management, e.g. …
  • Increased food production.
  • Population increase, particularly along river valleys, arising from healthy feeding.
  • Emergence of urban centres like Uruk, Eridu, Nippur, Kish and Babylon.
  • Development and expansion of trade due to surplus agricultural produce.

More items…

How and when did farming develop in Mesopotamia?

When and how were farming settlements established in Mesopotamia? Farming settlements were established in Mesopotamia by 7000 BC. People were growing crops along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and had formed small settlements there.

Why was irrigation so important to agriculture in Mesopotamia?

  • Firstly, towards the end of summer (August–September), the field must be irrigated in order to loosen up the desiccated soil after the summer heat. …
  • Sowing then took place in the autumn (largely in October–November). …
  • At the end of autumn and during the winter, the field needed to be weeded and irrigated repeatedly. …

More items…

image


Did agriculture develop in Mesopotamia?

Mesopotamians developed irrigation agriculture. To irrigate the land, the earliest inhabitants of the region drained the swampy lands and built canals through the dry areas. This had been done in other places before Mesopotamian times.


When did agriculture start?

about 11,700 years agoAgriculture has no single, simple origin. A wide variety of plants and animals have been independently domesticated at different times and in numerous places. The first agriculture appears to have developed at the closing of the last Pleistocene glacial period, or Ice Age (about 11,700 years ago).


Where was agriculture first developed?

Mehrgarh, one of the most important Neolithic (7000 BC to 3200 BC) sites in archaeology, lies on the “Kachi plain of Baluchistan, Pakistan, and is one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming (wheat and barley) and herding (cattle, sheep and goats) in South Asia.


What was agriculture like in Mesopotamia?

According to the British Museum, early Mesopotamian farmers’ main crops were barley and wheat. But they also created gardens shaded by date palms, where they cultivated a wide variety of crops including beans, peas, lentils, cucumbers, leeks, lettuce and garlic, as well as fruit such as grapes, apples, melons and figs.


What were the major changes in Mesopotamia during the second agricultural revolution?

Mesopotamia had been on the margin of developments in the Neolithic and the origins of agriculture and pastoralism took place in Mount Taurus, the Levant, and the Zagros, but it clearly participated in the second phase of major changes which took place in the Near East over the course of the 4th millennium BC, which are referred to as the ‘second agricultural revolution’ or the ‘revolution of secondary products’ in the case of pastoralism. These changes were characterised by the expansion of cereal cultivation following the invention of the plough and irrigation; the expansion of pastoralism, especially the raising of sheep for wool, but also beasts of burden such as cattle and donkeys, and dairy animals; and cultivation of fruit trees, such as date palms, olives, grapes, etc. They were accompanied by the establishment of the first states, the first cities, and these institutions possessed vast fields of cereals and great herds of sheep.


What were the two main agricultural domains of Mesopotamia?

The agriculture of southern or Lower Mesopotamia, the land of Sumer and Akkad, which later became Babylonia received almost no rain and required large scale irrigation works which were supervised by temple estates, but could produce high returns. The agriculture of Northern or Upper Mesopotamia, the land that would eventually become Assyria, had enough rainfall to allow dry agriculture most of the time so that irrigation and large institutional estates were less important, but the returns were also usually lower.


What was the biggest problem for farmers in the South?

The largest problem for farmers in the south seems to have been the salinisation of the soil. Thorkild Jacobsen and Robert McC. Adams have argued that this caused an ecological crisis in Babylonia in the 18th-17th centuries BC. If this problem was really caused by the high salt content of the soil and their irrigation system brought a rising amount of salt-carrying water to the surface, then the ancient Mesopotamians seem to have developed techniques that ameliorated this issue: control of the quantity of water discharged into the field, soil leaching to remove salt, and the practice of leaving land to lie fallow. It is not certain that the salinisation of land in southern Mesopotamia actually did lead to a fall in output and crisis in the long-term, but it did constitute a constant year-to-year problem.


What is the terrain of Mesopotamia?

The terrain of Mesopotamia is mostly flat, consisting of floodplains and plateaus. It is bordered by high mountains on the eastern side – the Zagros range, which is pierced by deep valleys and canyons with a northwest-southeast orientation (Great Zab, Little Zab, Diyala) – and by smaller mountains and volcanoes in Upper Mesopotamia (Kawkab, Tur Abdin, Jebel Abd-el-Aziz, Sinjar, Mount Kirkuk). Essentially, Upper Mesopotamia consists of plateaus which are slightly inclined to the east, rising from 200–500 m in altitude, and which are now known as Jazirah (from the Arabic, al-jazayra, ‘the island’). Thus, the rivers flow through valleys which are 1–10 km wide. The southern half of Mesopotamia, which is the part properly called Mesopotamia from a geophysical point of view, since it is where the Tigris and Euphrates flow close to one another, is a vast plain, which is 150–200 km wide and has only a very slight incline, decreasing to the south until it is nearly non-existent. This encourages the development of river braiding, sudden changes of course, and the establishment of marshy areas.


When were horses introduced to Mesopotamia?

Equids were domesticated late in Mesopotamian history, with the donkey ( ANŠE / imēru (o) ) only appearing clearly in the 4th millennium BC and the horse ( ANŠE.KUR.RA / sīsu (m)) arriving from elsewhere around the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC. They were joined by the onager which could be tamed, and the mule. The donkey rapidly came to play an essential role as a beast of burden, allowing the development of a system of caravans for long-distance transportation. The horse rapidly became a highly valued animal among the elites, especially warriors. The training of horses was the focus of a great deal of attention. The large areas of pasture in Mesopotamia are located in the north, but pale beside the areas available outside Mesopotamia in western Iran and the Caucasus. Starting around 2000 BC and especially in the 1st millennium BC, the dromedary and the camel ( ANŠE.A.AB.BA / ibilu) were introduced and came to play an important role as beasts of burden and transport. Their meat and milk was also consumed.


What are the two rivers that flow through Mesopotamia?

Other watercourses in Mesopotamia are the rivers that flow into the Tigris and Euphrates. The tributaries of the former originate in the Zagros; from north to south they are the Great Zab, the Little Zab, and Diyala. Their courses have a rapid flow, on account of the steep relief and the gorges through which they flow, as well as the snowmelt in spring which leads to large floods in April/May. They carry a large amount of the alluvium which ends up in the Tigris. The Euphrates has two tributaries which meet it in southern Jazirah: the Balikh and the Khabur .


What were the conditions of ancient Mesopotamia?

The societies of ancient Mesopotamia developed one of the most prosperous agricultural systems of the ancient world, under harsh constraints: rivers whose patterns had little relation to the growth cycle of domesticated cereals; a hot, dry climate with brutal interannual variations; and generally thin and saline soil. Conditions in the north may have been more favourable because the soil was more fertile and the rainfall was high enough for agriculture without irrigation, but the scale of rivers in the south and the flat plains which made it easy to cut irrigation channels and put large areas under cultivation gave advantages to the development of irrigated farms which were productive but required constant labour.


What type of agriculture did Mesopotamia have?

Due to its varied geography, Mesopotamian agriculture was highly diverse in terms of food sources, regional crop yields, and annual rainfall or irrigation variation (agricultural production could be up to 100x higher in particularly good years). There were two types of agriculture: 1 Dry agriculture without irrigation, where people mostly cultivated cereals and relied on rainfall, which was primarily practiced in upper Mesopotamia and Syria. 2 Irrigation agriculture, which was centered in lower Mesopotamia.


What were the crops that were grown in Mesopotamia?

The main types of grain that were used for agriculture were barley, wheat, millet, and emmer. Rye and oats were not yet known for agricultural use.


How was irrigation first conducted?

Irrigation was at first conducted by siphoning water from the Tigris-Euphrates river system directly onto the fields using small canals and shadufs; crane-like water lifts that have existed in Mesopotamia since c. 3000 BCE. In the drier regions, agriculture was only possible with irrigation canal systems, which are attested from the mid-1st millennium BCE, including aqueducts. The Jerwan aqueduct, the oldest known aqueduct in the world, was constructed by king Sennacherib I of Assyria between 703 and 690 BCE.


What is the birthplace of agriculture?

The ancient Near East, and the historical regions of the Fertile Crescent and Mesopotamia in particular, are generally seen as the birthplace of agriculture. In the 4th millennium BCE, this area was more temperate than it is today, and it was blessed with fertile soil, two great rivers (the Euphrates and the Tigris), as well as hills and mountains to the north.


What was the geography of the fertile crescent?

Geography of the Fertile Crescent. Due to its varied geography, Mesopotamian agriculture was highly diverse in terms of food sources, regional crop yields, and annual rainfall or irrigation variation (agricultural production could be up to 100x higher in particularly good years). There were two types of agriculture:


How was grain harvested?

Harvest required significant manpower, as there was immense time pressure on completing the harvest before winter set in. Grain was cut with a sickle, dried in shacks, and threshed by driving animals over it to “tread out” the grain. After threshing, the grain was separated from the chaff by winnowing, which was only possible in windy weather. The grain was then either stored in granaries or transported away along the waterways (sometimes even exported to other countries). In the granaries, cats and mongooses were used to protect the store from mice.


Why did agriculture start?

Agriculture started most likely because hunter-gatherers who collected grains would have had to take them back to their camp in order to separate the grain from the chaff.


What were the main crops of Mesopotamia?

The most important crops in Mesopotamia were wheat and barley. Farmers also grew dates, grapes, figs, melons, and apples. Favorite vegetables included eggplants, onions, radishes, beans, lettuce, and sesame seeds. Mesopotamians also raised sheep, goats, and cows.


When did the first settlements appear in Mesopotamia?

The earliest village settlements appear in north Mesopotamia from around 8000 B.C. The people combined hunting and gathering with keeping animals and growing cereals. They became more and more dependent upon domesticated animals and cereals as time went on.


What were the first crops that were used in the early era?

It was not until after 9500 BC that the eight so-called founder crops of agriculture appear: first emmer and einkorn wheat, then hulled barley, peas, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax.


Where did farming occur in Mesopotamia?

While talking about the sites where there was evidence of farming, we should not forget to mention places like Zawi Chemi Shanidar, Shanidar itself, Karim Shahir, Qal’at Jarmo, Jericho, Catalhuyuk and many others appearing to be locations where agricultural settlements occurred in the Ancient kingdom of Mesopotamia.


Why did the farming activity of Mesopotamia decline?

Presently, according to waterencyclopedia.com, some abandoned canals and ditches still remain in the area but not intact, the farming activity of Mesopotamia started declining overtime caused by the accumulation of salt in the soil and in 1258, Mongols took over the empire and damaged the irrigation systems.


Why was irrigation important in Mesopotamia?

Even though the Mesopotamian soil was fertile in a way that agriculture was very easy, there was a problem linked to the scarcity of rains. Nevertheless, they knew how to overcome the issue by the use of methods such as irrigation. In Fact, irrigation is the fact to bring additional water supply to a dry area in order to help crops growth. Certainly, the land consisted in its interior of wide rivers such as the Euphrates and the Tigris representing the most important ones from where water could be drawn to the cultivation’s fields and surrounded by Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Aral Sea, Arabian Sea and Caspian Sea also (“Ancient Mesopotamia”, Encarta). Mesopotamia was totally dependent on irrigation and its two big rivers because of the scarcity of rains and the article wrote and posted by Larry Mays on the site Water Encyclopedia says: “Irrigation was extremely vital to Mesopotamia (Mays, “Ancient Irrigation systems,” waterencyclopedia.com)”. The method of water flow control was first practiced in the two world’s first civilizations respectively Egypt and Mesopotamia. The application of the method needed a lot of physical work, correspondingly building. Activities such as building canals, ditches, tunnels, wide gaps where the water would come and stay and the maintenance of the infrastructures were constant in the area and it took them a lot of time to realize all this. Presently, according to waterencyclopedia.com, some abandoned canals and ditches still remain in the area but not intact, the farming activity of Mesopotamia started declining overtime caused by the accumulation of salt in the soil and in 1258, Mongols took over the empire and damaged the irrigation systems. By still dealing with Mays’ article on Water Encyclopedia, we got to know that the soil of the empire was full of silt, a major factor of soil fertility but constituted a continuous agent causing problems in the irrigation systems. Therefore, as there was not enough rainfall, the soil was kept its fertility because irrigation method could not wash a soil until removing its minerals components favoring good food production. Nevertheless, the Mesopotamian agricultural activity knew many problems such as flooding of water coming from the melting of snows in summer from the Turkish mountains according to the web page historylink.com and an unpredictable water flood from its two principle rivers respectively the Euphrates and Tigris according to the article of Louis and Jenifer posted on best.berkley.edu. However, irrigation carried many consequences on the farming activity in Mesopotamia. Irrigation maintained the fertility of soils because it did not deepen or sink the minerals as the way rainfall usually does. Minerals inside a soil are very important and help a fast and good food production at the end of an agricultural session. “The topsoil did not wash away as it does on sloping land, and minerals did not leach deep into the soil as they do under heavy rainfall. Hence, the fertility could be maintained indefinitely by the use of fairly simple soil-management practices (“Farming in Mesopotamia”)” said the web site historylink.com about the impacts of irrigation. Socially, the development of irrigation was helpful to citizens in a sense that it was a physical and intellectual work helping for additional knowledge and body welfare. A fertile soil combined with irrigation result to good and fast food production as we all know.


Why was Mesopotamia dependent on irrigation?

Mesopotamia was totally dependent on irrigation and its two big rivers because of the scarcity of rains and the article wrote and posted by Larry Mays on the site Water Encyclopedia says: “Irrigation was extremely vital to Mesopotamia (Mays, “Ancient Irrigation systems,” waterencyclopedia.com)”. The method of water flow control was first practiced …


How did irrigation affect agriculture in Mesopotamia?

The use of irrigation made at the same good and harm to agricultural activity in Mesopotamia in a sense that there was fast and good food production, but the activity was becoming more and more complex because of salt accumulation due to irrigation. However, cultivation also had its own consequences both positive and negative.


What seas did Mesopotamia have?

It consisted of two principal seas such as the Euphrates and the Tigris and was surrounded by many vast seas where they could draw water for additional supply. Despite the arid climate and scarcity of rains in Mesopotamia, they made use of irrigation as principal method to water their crops.


What was the first place where agriculture began?

The ancient kingdom possessed a very fertile soil favoring the development of cultivation’s activity. Precisely, as the ancient kingdom is located in the Middle East, it appears to be the first place where agriculture began in a general way.


Why was agriculture important in Mesopotamia?

This was due to the fact that they knew how to take advantage of their geographical proximity to the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Which helped make the land very fertile.


What was the main sustenance of Mesopotamia’s economy?

Finally, we can say that Mesopotamia’s agriculture was the main sustenance of its economy. To optimize agricultural work, they were based on the use of water resources and the application of appropriate technology. With this they achieved abundant and varied harvests. They took advantage of the natural fertility of the soil and built canals that ensured regular artificial irrigation of their crops.


What were the effects of the Euphrates and Tigris on the land?

But, generally during the months of April and May they grew and overflowed. This caused severe flooding especially in the southern part of the territory. This forced its inhabitants to design and build dikes and canals. These works helped to control the flooding of the rivers and allowed them to take advantage of the water when it was scarce.


What were the surpluses of the agricultural industry?

The surpluses of their agricultural products were used to be exchanged for raw materials that they could not produce. Their agricultural production allowed them to obtain wood, copper, tin, ivory, precious stones among some of the most important.


What was the role of the state in agriculture?

Indeed, the State played a prominent role in agriculture, since it implemented a management system for all these activities. The State was also responsible for carrying out the construction of public works such as canals, dams and drains that would facilitate agricultural work.


Where were the grains and crops transported?

Finally there was the phase of harvesting the crops. When collecting the grains and crops, they were transported to the warehouses where they were stored. Generally these warehouses were in temples and palaces. In the least cases, the warehouses were owned by private individuals.


Was Mesopotamia fertile?

Without a doubt, the fertility of the soils was not homogeneous. The lands located to the south of their territory were very fertile plains. However, the northern lands of their territory were very arid and with very uneven terrain. This meant that agricultural work was not easy for the inhabitants of Mesopotamia.


When did agriculture start in Mesopotamia?

Early Agriculture in Mesopotamia. In Mesopotamia, which today is part of Iraq, food production began around 8000 BC having been introduced by settlers from the Iranian plateau. Jarmo in the Kurdish foothills represents the earliest stage of Agriculture. As men went hunting and gathering, the women they left behind may have experimented …


What were the factors that facilitated the development of law in Mesopotamia?

Explain two main factors that facilitated development of law in Mesopotamia. Advances in religious practices. Mesopotamians had many gods, most of who were connected to agriculture, e.g. Ninurta the god of floods. Compilation of cords of law to limit conflict in their civilization, e.g. Hamurabi‟s law.


Why did the Sumerians dig canals?

But the Sumerians skilfully dug canals to channel water from the two rivers to summer, boosted by the Shadoof or Bucket method of irrigation.


What are some farming implements?

Invention and use of farming implements like the ox-drawn plough and the seed-drill in place of digging sticks and stone hoes fastened with sticky earth onto a short wooden handle for tilling the land as well as baked clay sickles, baskets and pots in reaping and storing the harvest.


How many cities were there in Sumerian civilization?

The Sumerian civilization, which was thriving in Mesopotamia by around 3000 BC comprised twelve separate city states. Farming, fishing, crafts making and keeping of livestock were most practiced. The city states were surrounded with walls, outside of which were farming fields, on which the urban people depended.


How is reclamation used for agricultural purposes?

Reclamation of more land for agricultural purposes by skilfully draining and directing water through dykes, ditches and canals from swampy land to the dry land , making both cultivable.


What did the women of Mesopotamia experiment with?

As men went hunting and gathering, the women they left behind may have experimented with wild grasses that grew around their compound until they found out and grew the edible plants , paving the way for organized agriculture. (a) Identify: The animals domesticated in Mesopotamia. Crops grown in Mesopotamia. (b) Name:


What did people find when they first moved into the region between the Tigris and Euphrates?

When people first moved into the region between the Tigris and Euphrates, they found living pretty easy . There was wildlife to catch, fish in the rivers, and edible vegetation growing wild. So they stayed. Soon they found that they could grow their own food if they tended the land.


What is the land in Iraq like?

When people are asked today what they think the land in the modern country of Iraq is like, most would say desert. And in a sense it is. It doesn’t rain much so in that way it is a desert, but the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers is very fertile. Food crops grow readily if they have water.


When did rice and millet farming start?

The origins of rice and millet farming date to around 6,000 B.C.E.


What was the farming revolution?

Taking root around 12,000 years ago, agriculture triggered such a change in society and the way in which people lived that its development has been dubbed the ” Neolithic Revolution.”. Traditional hunter-gatherer lifestyles, followed by humans since their evolution, were swept aside in favor of permanent settlements …


What mutation occurred during the spread of farming into southeastern Europe?

But at some point during the spread of farming into southeastern Europe, a mutation occurred for lactose tolerance that increased in frequency through natural selection thanks to the nourishing benefits of milk.


Where did wheat come from?

The wild progenitors of crops including wheat, barley and peas are traced to the Near East region. Cereals were grown in Syria as long as 9,000 years ago, while figs were cultivated even earlier; prehistoric seedless fruits discovered in the Jordan Valley suggest fig trees were being planted some 11,300 years ago.


Why did people start farming?

In the Near East, for example, it’s thought that climatic changes at the end of the last ice age brought seasonal conditions that favored annual plants like wild cereals. Elsewhere, such as in East Asia, increased pressure on natural food resources may have forced people to find homegrown solutions. But whatever the reasons for its independent origins, farming sowed the seeds for the modern age.


When did corn cobs first appear?

While maize-like plants derived from teosinte appear to have been cultivated at least 9,000 years ago, the first directly dated corn cob dates only to around 5,500 years ago . Corn later reached North America, where cultivated sunflowers also started to bloom some 5,000 years ago.


How long ago did goats come to Europe?

Dates for the domestication of these animals range from between 13,000 to 10,000 years ago. Genetic studies show that goats and other livestock accompanied the westward spread of agriculture into Europe, helping to revolutionize Stone Age society. While the extent to which farmers themselves migrated west remains a subject of debate, …

image


Overview

Agriculture is the ratio main economic activity in ancient Mesopotamia. Operating under harsh constraints, notably the arid climate, the Mesopotamian farmers developed effective strategies that enabled them to support the development of the first states, the first cities, and then the first known empires, under the supervision of the institutions which dominated the economy: the royal and provincial palaces, the temples, and the domains of the elites. They focused above all on th…


Climate

While developing models to describe the early development of settled agriculture in the Near East, reconstructions of climate and vegetation are a subject of consideration. During the glacial period, it is thought that lower temperatures or higher aridity resulted in sparse or non-existent forest cover similar to steppe type terrain in the area of the Zagros Mountains and varying forest cover in the territories of modern-day Turkey and Syria. Northwest Syria, dominated in ancient times by decid…


Topography

The societies of ancient Mesopotamia developed one of the most prosperous agricultural systems of the ancient world, under harsh constraints: rivers whose patterns had little relation to the growth cycle of domesticated cereals; a hot, dry climate with brutal interannual variations; and generally thin and saline soil. Conditions in the north may have been more favourable because the soil was …


Human infrastructure

Mesopotamian farmers did a number of things in order to augment the land’s potential and reduce its risks. The infrastructure that they created profoundly altered the land, particularly through the creation of irrigation networks in the south where the supply of water from the river was necessary for the growth of the crops. Thanks to textual sources it is partially possible to reconstruct the appearance of the Mesopotamian countryside and the different types of land ex…


Crops

Mesopotamia had been on the margin of developments in the Neolithic and the origins of agriculture and pastoralism took place in Mount Taurus, the Levant, and the Zagros, but it clearly participated in the second phase of major changes which took place in the Near East over the course of the 4th millennium BC, which are referred to as the ‘second agricultural revolution’ or the ‘revolution o…


Economic organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry

Reconstructing the organisation of the ancient economy from the surviving sources (mainly textual) faces numerous difficulties. Agricultural activity in ancient Mesopotamia is documented by tens of thousands of administrative documents, but they generally relate to a specific sector of the economy – the institutions of the royal palace and the temples, and, to a lesser degree, the private domains of the elites. It is their activities and initiatives which are the main source of info…


Bibliography

• Bottéro, J.; Kramer, S. N. (1989). Lorsque les Dieux faisaient l’Homme. Paris. ISBN 2070713822.
• Charpin, D. (2003). Hammu-rabi de Babylone. Paris. ISBN 2130539637.
• Englund, R. K. (1998). “Texts from the Late Uruk Period”. In J. Bauer, R. K. Englund & M. Krebernik (ed.). Mesopotamien, Späturuk-Zeit und Frühdynastische Zeit. Fribourg et Göttingen. pp. 15–233. ISBN 3-525-53797-2.


The Origins of Agriculture


Geography of The Fertile Crescent

  • The Fertile Crescent is an ancient geographic region comprised of three primary geographic zones: 1. Mesopotamia, mostly located in modern-day Iraq, defined by the alluvial plain of the rivers Euphrates and Tigris 2. Upper Mesopotamia in the foothills of the Taurus and Zagros mountains in the north 3. The Levant, in modern-day Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, and Palestin…

See more on worldhistory.org


Mesopotamian Crops

  • The main types of grain that were used for agriculture were barley, wheat, millet, and emmer. Rye and oats were not yet known for agricultural use. In Babylonia, Assyria, and the Hittite lands, barley was the main grain for human use, primarily because it is reasonably salt-tolerant (an important consideration when irrigating crops in the summer heat). It was a widely-used form o…

See more on worldhistory.org


Harvest & Storage

  • Harvest required significant manpower, as there was immense time pressure on completing the harvest before winter set in. Grain was cut with a sickle, dried in shacks, and threshed by driving animals over it to “tread out” the grain. After threshing, the grain was separated from the chaff by winnowing, which was only possible in windy weather. The grain was then either stored in granar…

See more on worldhistory.org


Agricultural Societies

  • The societies of Mesopotamia depended largely on agriculture and access to water. Initially, the majority of the land was owned by the palace and the temples, but in the 18th century BCE, large swathes of land were privatized. The smallest unit of land was the ilkum, which was leased by the temple or the palace to a smallholding family. Even though…

See more on worldhistory.org

Leave a Comment