When did fossil fuel-based agriculture emerge

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Answer

What is the history of fossil fuels?

Some forms of petroleum, coal, and natural gas were used thousands of years ago by various civilizations on various continents, according to historical records and archaeological finds. The history of the use of fossil fuels is as old as is the history of human civilization.

How have fossil fuels influenced the modern agriculture industry?

Many of the improvements that have been implemented within the agriculture industry have been directly and indirectly influenced by fossil fuels. Near the beginning of the twentieth century, tractors powered by fossil fuels first started to replace horses to mechanize numerous aspects of agricultural production.

How did ancient civilizations use fossil fuels?

In ancient times, the use of fossil fuels may have been limited due to lack of knowledge and technology, but civilizations tried and, to some extent, managed to make the most of the fossil fuel resources they could extract and use in their everyday lives.

What is the history of Agriculture in the United States?

The history of agriculture in the United States covers the period from the first English settlers to the present day. In Colonial America, agriculture was the primary livelihood for 90% of the population, and most towns were shipping points for the export of agricultural products. Most farms were geared toward subsistence production for family use.


What is fossil fuel agriculture?

Large amounts of fossil fuel are required to power heavy farming machinery, to process foods, to refrigerate foods during transportation, to produce packaging materials, and to manufacture and transport chemical inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides.


How much fossil energy consumption in the United States can be attributed to food production?

The American food supply is driven almost entirely by non-renewable energy sources and accounts for approximately 19% of the total use of fossil fuels in the United States. It takes about 7.3 units of (primarily) fossil energy to produce one unit of food energy in the U.S. food system.


How are fossil fuels used in modern agriculture?

Modern agriculture is heavily dependent on fossil resources. Both direct energy use for crop management and indirect energy use for fertilizers, pesticides and machinery production have contributed to the major increases in food production seen since the 1960s.


Why does modern agriculture depend so heavily on fossil fuels?

Why does modern agriculture depend so heavily on fossil fuels? Because fossil fuels are used to make fertilizers and pesticides, operate tractors, pump water, and harvest food.


How are fossil fuels used in the food we eat?

Often overlooked however is the vital role they play in powering humans, as the food we eat is made possible by fossil fuels. To take just one example, synthesized fertilizers are the plant-nutrient inputs that feed humanity s food crops, and this plant food is overwhelmingly made possible by fossil fuels.


How much energy do we get from food?

The U.S. food system uses a massive amount of energy from start to finish. In 2018, the U.S. consumed 101.1 quadrillion Btu (British thermal units) of energy. The food system makes up 10 percent of that total, landing it at about 10.11 quadrillion Btu.


What is the highest energy consumption in food system?

Agriculture, including crop cultivation and animal rearing, is the most energy intense phase of the food system, accounting for nearly 33% of the total energy consumed in the food production chain.


How much fossil fuel is used in fertilizer?

In the production of ammonia or urea, natural gas is processed at an upgrading plant together with nitrogen (taken from the air). During the process, 80% of the gas is used as feed¬stock for fertilizer, while the remaining 20% is used for heat and electricity production.


What is the role of fossil fuels in agriculture?

Fossil fuels are the great unsung hero of the agricultural revolution, allowing both the U.S. and the most of the world to produce food far more efficiently now than at the turn of the 20 th century. Fossil fuel based innovations in fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, and machinery has enabled food supply …


How do fossil fuels benefit agriculture?

Contrary to the claim that our expanding use of fossil fuels is fundamentally damaging to the environment, fossil fuel based improvements in agricultural production have preserved Mother Nature by reducing humanity’s footprint on the land. October 12, 2018.


How have fossil fuels insulated us?

Fossil fuels have also insulated us from the fickleness of Mother Nature, removing the periodic famines that have plagued humanity for most of its history. Another fossil fuel based innovation is the great variety of modern agricultural equipment.


How has abandoning fossil fuels benefited humanity?

Fossil fuels have not only benefited humanity by improving access to affordable food, but by reducing our footprint on the land, they have also helped preserve nature.


How has fossil fuels helped the world?

Fossil fuel based innovations in fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, and machinery has enabled food supply and production to not just keep up with population growth but actually far exceed it. The world population has more than quadrupled in the last hundred years, but fossil fuel based innovations have helped shrink the average hectares …


How much of the US workforce was in agriculture in 1870?

In 1870, about 48% of the U.S. workforce was employed in agriculture [5], and by 2016, only about 1.5% of the workforce was in agriculture [6]. Fossil fuels have freed us from backbreaking agricultural labor and allowed us to commit our time and energy to other pursuits that support human flourishing. The claim of many people who advocate …


What are the materials that are made from fossil fuels?

We also have to consider the numerous synthetic materials developed from fossil fuels, including plastic, asphalt, synthetic fibers, and much more, which assist with transporting and storing food and food products.


Why were fossil fuels limited?

In ancient times, the use of fossil fuels may have been limited due to lack of knowledge and technology, but civilizations tried and, to some extent, managed to make the most of the fossil fuel resources they could extract and use in their everyday lives. This complete history of fossil fuels will dwell on:


How are fossil fuels formed?

Fossil fuels are a class of materials formed from dead organisms that sunk below the surface of the earth millions of years ago. All fossil fuels were organic material once, but different geological conditions such as pressure, temperature, rocks, and sediment, have led to the formation of different types of fossil fuels. …


What is the primary source of energy in the world today?

Fossil fuels are the primary source of energy in the world today. But people started using fossil fuels long before the first steam engine running on coal or the first commercially drilled oil well.


What are the three main fossil fuels?

Of course, early uses of fossil fuels cannot compare in volume to today’s exploration, extraction, processing, and trading industries in the three main fossil fuels – crude oil, natural gas, and coal. Those three fuels combined account for the majority of the global energy use now. In ancient times, the use of fossil fuels may have been limited due …


How did the Chinese find oil?

The Chinese found oil reservoirs in salt wells and drilled wells deep 100 feet to reach natural gas and oil in underground reserv oirs at some point around 500 B.C. A few hundred years later, the Chinese also built bamboo pipes to carry natural gas to homes for heating and lighting.


What was the main fuel used in the Civil War?

Coal consumption was steadily growing and outpacing the use of wood for energy. During the Civil War, factories making weapons began to use coal, which is abundant in the United States. Coke made from coal was already replacing charcoal as the main fuel for steel-making furnaces by the late 19th century.


What was bitumen used for?

According to ancient Greek historian Herodotus, bitumen from a small tributary of the River Euphrates (in modern-day Iraq), was used for the construction of the wall of Babylon , the most famous city of ancient Mesopotamia. Mesopotamians also used bitumen for road construction and sealing and waterproofing their boats.


How have fossil fuels improved agriculture?

While agriculture once existed without the use of fossil fuels, fossil fuels have dramatically enhanced agricultural productivity and the ability to adequately feed the world’s rapidly growing population.


Why are fossil fuels important?

In addition to the need for advanced fertilizers and pesticides to enhance agricultural productivity, fossil fuels have become essential to deliver food to global markets. Global transportation systems are highly reliant on fossil fuels.


What were the livestock used for?

The livestock were then used to generate manure as fertilizer and muscle power for plowing the fields for crop production. As fossil fuels were introduced, synthetic fertilizers, farm machinery, and other modern technologies were adopted to dramatically increase food production.


What are the things that are made possible by fossil fuels?

Electric grids, transportation systems, consumer goods, hot water, clothing, and plastics have largely been made possible by fossil fuels. While renewable energy generation is rapidly becoming more common, fossil fuels are still projected to be a necessity in the coming decades. As part of the building blocks of society …


What are the primary needs of fossil fuels?

There are four primary needs for fossil fuels in agricultural production. In addition to supplying power to mechanical equipment such as tractors, fossil fuels are used to manufacture fertilizer, transport food to markets, and within processing and packaging food supplies. These four focal areas require a significant amount …


What are the future energy sources?

Renewable energy sources like solar, wind, and hydro will play a vital role in the future of energy production. However, when evaluating the current state of the global agriculture industry, it’s clear that fossil fuels will remain crucial in the coming decade.


What was the primary input of energy for agriculture before the Industrial Revolution?

Before the Industrial Revolution that took place beginning in the 18 th century, the sun provided the primary input of energy for agricultural production.


What is the most widespread belief about fossil fuels?

September 20, 2018 at 5:35 am. One of the most widespread beliefs about fossil fuels — oil, natural gas and coal — is that these substances started out as dinosaurs. There’s even an oil company, Sinclair, that uses an Apatosaurus as its icon. That dino-source story is, however, a myth. What is true: These fuels got their start long, …


Why should we stop using fossil fuels?

The burning of fossil fuels creates carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. These can contribute to climate change and global warming. For that reason, many scientists have warned that people should stop using fossil fuels. Alternatives, such as wind and solar power, don’t produce greenhouse gases.


Why do hydrocarbons migrate upward?

That prompts them to migrate upward, at least until they get trapped by some ground layer that they can’t move past. When that happens, they gradually build up. This forms a reservoir of them.


Is it easy to give up fossil fuels?

Giving up fossil fuels entirely, though, won’t be easy, at least in the near future, Tutuncu says. These substances are used for more than just producing energy. Plastics and many other products include fossil fuels in their recipes.


When was fossil fuel first used?

The Oxford English Dictionary notes that in the phrase “fossil fuel” the adjective “fossil” means ” [o]btained by digging; found buried in the earth”, which dates to at least 1652, before the English noun “fossil” came to refer primarily to long-dead organisms in the early 18th century.


Who first discovered fossil fuels?

The theory that fossil fuels formed from the fossilized remains of dead plants by exposure to heat and pressure in the Earth’s crust over millions of years was first introduced by Andreas Libavius “in his 1597 Alchemia [Alchymia]” and later by Mikhail Lomonosov “as early as 1757 and certainly by 1763”. The first use of the term “fossil fuel” occurs …


What is fossil fuel phase out?

Fossil fuel phase-out is the gradual reduction of the use of fossil fuels to zero. It is part of the ongoing renewable energy transition. Current efforts in fossil fuel phase-out involve replacing fossil fuels with sustainable energy sources in sectors such as transport, and heating.


How does burning fossil fuels affect the environment?

The use of fossil fuels causes serious environmental damage . The burning of fossil fuels produces around 35 billion tonnes (35 gigatonnes) of carbon dioxide (CO 2) per year. Natural processes can only absorb a small part of that amount, so there is a net increase of many billion tonnes of atmospheric carbon dioxide per year.


What fuels were used in the invention of the internal combustion engine?

The invention of the internal combustion engine and its use in automobiles and trucks greatly increased the demand for gasoline and diesel oil, both made from fossil fuels. Other forms of transportation, railways and aircraft, also require fossil fuels.


How are fossil fuels formed?

A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes , such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing organic molecules originating in ancient photosynthesis that release energy in combustion.


Why is fossil fuel important?

Fossil fuels are of great importance because they can be burned ( oxidized to carbon dioxide and water), producing significant amounts of energy per unit mass. The use of coal as a fuel predates recorded history. Coal was used to run furnaces for the smelting of metal ore.


Where did wheat grow?

New varieties of wheat flourished in the arid parts of the Great Plains, opening much of the Dakotas, Montana, western Kansas, western Nebraska and eastern Colorado. Where it was too dry for wheat, the settlers turned to cattle ranching.


Where did cattle ranching begin?

In the spring and fall, ranchers held roundups where their cowboys branded new calves, treated animals and sorted the cattle for sale. Such ranching began in Texas and gradually moved northward. Cowboys drove Texas cattle north to railroad lines in the cities of Dodge City, Kansas and Ogallala, Nebraska; from there, cattle were shipped eastward. British investors financed many great ranches of the era. Overstocking of the range and the terrible Winter of 1886–87 resulted in a disaster, with many cattle starved and frozen to death. From then on, ranchers generally raised feed to ensure they could keep their cattle alive over winter.


How did ethnicity affect farming?

They adapted Old World techniques to a much more abundant land supply. Furthermore, the Germans showed a long-term tendency to keep the farm in the family and to avoid having their children move to towns. For example, they generally preferred oxen to horses for plowing. The Scots Irish built their livelihoods on some farming but more herding (of hogs and cattle). In the American colonies, the Scots-Irish focused on mixed farming. Using this technique, they grew corn for human consumption and for livestock feed, especially for hogs. Many improvement-minded farmers of different backgrounds began using new agricultural practices to increase their output. During the 1750s, these agricultural innovators replaced the hand sickles and scythes used to harvest hay, wheat, and barley with the cradle scythe, a tool with wooden fingers that arranged the stalks of grain for easy collection. This tool was able to triple the amount of work done by a farmer in one day. A few scientifically informed farmers (mostly wealthy planters like George Washington) began fertilizing their fields with dung and lime and rotating their crops to keep the soil fertile.


What was the main export crop of the Mississippi Valley?

The main export crop was cotton. But after a few years, the fertility of the soil was depleted and the plantation was moved to the new land further west. Much land was cleared and put into growing cotton in the Mississippi valley and in Alabama, and new grain growing areas were brought into production in the Mid West.


What was the economy of the early 19th century?

The U.S. economy was primarily agricultural in the early 19th century. Westward expansion plus the building of canals and the introduction of steamboats opened up new areas for agriculture. Most farming was designed to produce food for the family, and service small local market. In times of rapid economic growth, a farmer could still improve the land for far more than he paid for it, and then move further west to repeat the process.


What was the first tool used to harvest wheat?

During the 1750s, these agricultural innovators replaced the hand sickles and scythes used to harvest hay, wheat, and barley with the cradle scythe, a tool with wooden fingers that arranged the stalks of grain for easy collection. This tool was able to triple the amount of work done by a farmer in one day.


What did the Plymouth colonists plant?

The first settlers in Plymouth Colony planted barley and peas from England but their most important crop was Indian corn ( maize) which they were shown how to cultivate by the native Squanto. To fertilize this crop, they used small fish which they called herrings or shads.


Energy as A Necessity

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Energy is a necessity in life. Without abundant and reliable sources of energy, life would cease to exist as we know it. Cheap and abundant fossil fuels supply the vast majority of the energy needed to power today’s civilization. Fossil fuels have been thoroughly woven within the fabric of modern society. Electric grids, transpo…

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The Importance of Food Systems

  • Human health and survival depend heavily on access to modern and productive food systems. Societies that lack easily accessible food supplies have lower life expectancies and elevated rates of infant and maternal mortality, in addition to malnutrition and poor health in general (Goklany, 2012). The initial development of agriculture thousands of year ago led to the rise of humanity. …

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Fossil Fuels and Food

  • Prior to incorporating fossil fuels into food production, agriculture was heavily dependent on both human and animal labor. Before the Industrial Revolution that took place beginning in the 18thcentury, the sun provided the primary input of energy for agricultural production. Through the process of photosynthesis, plants grew incrementally and then…

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Primary Needs

  • There are four primary needs for fossil fuels in agricultural production. In addition to supplying power to mechanical equipment such as tractors, fossil fuels are used to manufacture fertilizer, transport food to markets, and within processing and packaging food supplies. These four focal areas require a significant amount of energy and fossil fuels. According to the U.S. Energy Infor…

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Synthetic Ammonia

  • Agricultural studies have concluded that about 40 percent of the global supply of food would not exist without the use of synthetic ammonia (Pfromm, 2017). As a result of the massive levels of ammonia production needed in industrial agriculture, ammonia has become the second most produced chemical in the world. The total annual carbon emissions associated with ammonia pr…

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Transportation and Packaging

  • In addition to the need for advanced fertilizers and pesticides to enhance agricultural productivity, fossil fuels have become essential to deliver food to global markets. Global transportation systems are highly reliant on fossil fuels. While some global policymakers have been planning to implement bans on fossil fuel-powered vehicles, the overwhelming majority of food being transp…

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Dependence and Sustainability

  • While many natural resource professionals and environmentalists are optimistic about a future less dependent on fossil fuels, it’s clear that a great deal of work is still needed to address energy consumption for agriculture. In a recent interview, a researcher from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization effectively captured how dependent the agriculture industry is on fossil …

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Future Advancements

  • In addition to technological advancements to reduce fossil fuel dependence in the agriculture industry, numerous low-tech solutions have been gaining traction. Household composting, reducing food waste, and encouraging plant-based diets have all been deemed as opportunities to reduce energy consumption from agricultural production. Composting is being publicized as a w…

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Sources

  • Canning, P., et al. (2017). “The Role of Fossil Fuels in the U.S. Food System and the American Diet.” United States Department of Agriculture: Economic Research Report Number 224. EIA. (2014). “Energy for growing and harvesting crops is a large component of farm operating costs.” U.S. Energy Information Administration. Goklany, I. (2012). Humanity Unbound: How Fossil Fuel…

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