When did sustainable agriculture start



What are examples of sustainable agriculture?

  • Conservation Agriculture. …
  • Controlled Traffic Farming. …
  • Integrated Pest Management
  • Rotating crops and embracing diversity. …
  • Reducing or eliminating tillage. …
  • Applying integrated pest management (IPM). …
  • Integrating livestock and crops. …
  • Adopting agro-forestry practices. …
  • Managing whole systems and landscapes. …

What are the features of sustainable agriculture?

  • Rotating crops and embracing diversity.
  • Planting cover crops.
  • Reducing or eliminating tillage.
  • Applying integrated pest management (IPM).
  • Integrating livestock and crops.
  • Adopting agroforestry practices.
  • Managing whole systems and landscapes.

What is sustainable farming and best sustainable farming practices?

The hard work of our farmers paired with a dedicated agri-food value chain where innovation, technology and agricultural mechanization work together are the milestones to deliver more sustainable farming practices … can check our Best Of Video here.

What are the disadvantages of sustainable agriculture?

  • because of the reduced use of chemicals and organic ways.
  • reduced emissions
  • better nutrition .
  • better resistance and good biodiversity in the farm

When did sustainable agriculture start in Canada?

Canada’s sustainable agriculture movement began in the early 1950s with the establishment of an Ontario-based organization, The Land Fellowship. Its principal leaders, Christopher Chapman and Spencer Cheshire, focused their activities on the production and dissemination of popular education in print and film. A few vocal producers, influenced by sustainable agriculture developments in Europe and the USA, also spoke out against the agricultural practices and policies of the period and promoted sustainable approaches. They received little attention from the agricultural establishment, although there was a slow but steady increase in interest in the farm community. This was particularly so in Quebec due to the presence of Europeans who had been practicing sustainable practices before arriving in Canada.

What is sustainable agriculture?

Sustainable agriculture has evolved from three perspectives: as a system of production to achieve food self-reliance; as a concept of stewardship; and as a vehicle for sustaining rural communities. The concept of sustainability is not new to farming practice, agricultural science, nor even to agricultural policy.

How does sustainable yield affect agriculture?

In fisheries, the focus has been on optimizing yields by ensuring that harvest rates equal replacement rates , thereby permitting harvest to continue in virtual perpetuity. Similar ideas are being applied to agriculture by emphasizing optimal replacement rates of soil, soil nutrients and organic matter, soil organisms, water, energy and genetic resources.

Why were environmental organizations created in the 1970s?

In the 1970s, many environmental and sustainable agriculture organizations were created in response to the nascent global concern about the environment. All of these organizations started with small budgets and largely volunteer labour, but did have an impact on the media and the public consciousness.

When was organic farming first used?

The term organic was first widely used in the USA by J.I. Rodale, founder of Rodale Press, in the 1950s. Rodale was both the popularizer of the term organic (and by implication notions of sustainability), but also, in the scientific community, the inspiration for the denigration of the term. Rodale failed to convince scientists of the validity of his approach because of his reliance on what were perceived to be outrageous unscientific claims of organic farming’s benefits. This was unfortunate as a number of scientists in the USA and Europe were investigating and promoting sustainability in agriculture at the time, most notably Sir Albert Howard and William Albrecht. The scientific and governmental fascination with using agrichemicals, monoculture, and specialized equipment for food production severely constrained professional interest in questions of sustainability.

Who used the term “organic” in his book?

The term organic, as a descriptor for certain sustainable agriculture systems, appears to have been first widely used by Lord Northbourn (1940) in his book “Look to the Land”. Northbourn used the term to describe farming systems that focused on the farm as a dynamic, living, balanced, organic whole, or an organism.

Why was the repeal of the Corn Laws important?

The repeal of the English Corn Laws played a major role in the demise of sustainable practices because it signified a shift away from food self-reliance.

When was sustainable agriculture first promoted?

One of the earliest organizations formed to promote sustainable agriculture was the Ontario-based group, The Land Fellowship, established in the early 1950s. During the 50s and 60s, there were a number of academic studies on sustainable issues.

What is the name of the program that the USDA funded in 1989?

The 1985, Food Security Act authorized sustainable agriculture research. In 1989, $4.45 million was allocated for the Low-Impact Sustainable Agriculture (LISA) program in the USDA. LISA later became SARE, the Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education program.

What were the non-renewable resources in the 50s?

Non-renewable resources. During the 50s, the production of fertilizers took off. Oil and natural gas were used to produce ammonia. Minerals like potash were mined. Some scientists began to point out that there is a limit to the amount of oil and minerals that exist in the world, so agriculture cannot sustain itself in the long term if we use up these resources.

What is a critique of sustainability?

As the sustainable agriculture movement grew, the green programs took note and funded research projects into sustainable practices. And they have all emphasized new techniques and varieties of traditional crops that the poorest farmers can produced with limited training.

How have humans been genetically modifying plants for thousands of years?

Borlaug points out that human beings have been genetically modifying plants for thousands of years by simply choosing the best looking plants to plant and encourage. Understanding the structure of DNA shortens the time needed to produce new varieties.

What is organic farming?

Organic farmingis a related concept that has actually been defined legally as the market for “organic” food has grown. Organic crops are actually defined by what they are not – they are NOT grown using commercial pesticides, artificial fertilizers or sewage sludge, and they are NOT processed using food additives or ionizing radiation. Organic animal products are NOT produced using antibiotics routinely or using growth hormones. At all levels, organic food is produced without using genetically modified organisms.

What are the conservation efforts of farmers?

These advocates pushed conservation tillage methods, efficient uses of irrigation and crop rotation practices to maintain the resources.

What is the goal of sustainable agriculture?

The goal of sustainable agriculture is to meet society’s food and textile needs in the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Practitioners of sustainable agriculture seek to integrate three main objectives into their work: a healthy environment, economic profitability, and social and economic equity.

How has agriculture changed?

Agriculture has changed dramatically, especially since the end of World War II. Food and fiber productivity soared due to new technologies, mechanization, increased chemical use, specialization and government policies that favored maximizing production. These changes allowed fewer farmers with reduced labor demands to produce the majority of the food and fiber in the U.S.

What are the three areas of concern for sustainable agriculture?

The strategies are grouped according to three separate though related areas of concern: Farming and Natural Resources, Plant and Animal Production Practices, and the Economic, Social and Political Context. They represent a range of potential ideas for individuals committed to interpreting the vision of sustainable agriculture within their own circumstances.

How do consumers contribute to the food system?

Through their purchases, they send strong messages to producers, retailers and others in the system about what they think is important. Food cost and nutritional quality have always influenced consumer choices.

What is the principal resource that has helped agriculture and society to prosper?

Water . Water is the principal resource that has helped agriculture and society to prosper, and it has been a major limiting factor when mismanaged. Water supply and use. In California, an extensive water storage and transfer system has been established which has allowed crop production to expand to very arid regions.

What happens to the natural resources of ancient Mesopotamia?

When the production of food and fiber degrades the natural resource base, the ability of future generations to produce and flourish decreases. The decline of ancient civilizations in Mesopotamia, the Mediterranean region, Pre-Columbian southwest U.S. and Central America is believed to have been strongly influenced by natural resource degradation from non-sustainable farming and forestry practices.

How does agriculture affect air quality?

These include smoke from agricultural burning; dust from tillage, traffic and harvest; pesticide drift from spraying; and nitrous oxide emissions from the use of nitrogen fertilizer. Options to improve air quality include:

What is sustainable agriculture?

Sustainable agriculture serves as a much-needed alternative to the industrial farming practices that have been employed in the United States for decades. These methods, which include repeatedly planting the same crop on one plot of land and encouraging growth through the heavy use of pesticides and fertilizers, …

What are the three main goals of sustainable agriculture?

The three main goals of sustainable agriculture are economic profitability for farmers; the promotion of environmental stewardship; and an increase in welfare for farmers, their communities, and their animals while producing enough to meet the needs of humans.

Why are antibiotics not used in agriculture?

Antibiotic Resistance: Because antibiotics are not used for preventive medicine in sustainable agriculture, implementing sustainable methods of production increases the effectiveness of antibiotics in treating people. Pandemics: Industrial agriculture, in which animals are kept in tight quarters, is a driver of disease.

Why are sustainable methods of production more likely to support and rely on the local economy?

Localization: Sustainable methods of production are more likely to support and rely on the local economy. Farms are no longer purchasing products, such as fertilizers and pesticides, from outside their communities, and instead are relying more heavily on local resources such as labor.

How has agriculture dominated food production in the United States?

It is characterized by large tracts of land planted with one crop, extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides, animals being held in CAFOs, and an emphasis on a select few crops that are used for animal feed and the production of processed foods.

How does agriculture affect the environment?

Environmental Impacts. Industrial agriculture is a driving force behind water pollution, soil degradation, and air pollution. The animals housed in CAFOs produce tons of manure every year which is either stored or applied to fields as a fertilizer.

What is the Farm Bill?

The Farm Bill also provides for the Environmental Quality Incentives Program and Conservation Stewardship Program which provide financial and technical assistance to farms that use sustainable methods that encourage improved water, air, and soil quality. The total budget for these programs is less than $5 billion.

How long ago did agriculture start?

Wild grains were collected and eaten from at least 105,000 years ago.

Where did agriculture originate?

By 8000 BC, farming was entrenched on the banks of the Nile. About this time, agriculture was developed independently in the Far East, probably in China, with rice rather than wheat as the primary crop. Maize was domesticated from the wild grass teosinte in southern Mexico by 6700 BC.

How did the Industrial Revolution affect agriculture?

Between the 17th century and the mid-19th century, Britain saw a large increase in agricultural productivity and net output. New agricultural practices like enclosure, mechanization, four-field crop rotation to maintain soil nutrients, and selective breeding enabled an unprecedented population growth to 5.7 million in 1750, freeing up a significant percentage of the workforce, and thereby helped drive the Industrial Revolution. The productivity of wheat went up from 19 US bushels (670 l; 150 US dry gal; 150 imp gal) per acre in 1720 to around 30 US bushels (1,100 l; 240 US dry gal; 230 imp gal) by 1840, marking a major turning point in history.

What are the social issues that modern agriculture has raised?

Modern agriculture has raised social, political, and environmental issues including overpopulation, water pollution, biofuels, genetically modified organisms, tariffs and farm subsidies. In response, organic farming developed in the twentieth century as an alternative to the use of synthetic pesticides.

How has agriculture changed since 1900?

Since 1900, agriculture in the developed nations, and to a lesser extent in the developing world, has seen large rises in productivity as human labour has been replaced by mechanization, and assisted by synthe tic fertilizers, pesticides, and selective breeding.

What were the crops that were introduced in the Middle Ages?

In the Middle Ages, both in the Islamic world and in Europe, agriculture was transformed with improved techniques and the diffusion of crop plants, including the introduction of sugar, rice, cotton and fruit trees such as the orange to Europe by way of Al-Andalus.

Why was clover important to agriculture?

The use of clover was especially important as the legume roots replenished soil nitrates. The mechanisation and rationalisation of agriculture was another important factor.

The Beginning of Farming

It’s a question that many have pondered, and in doing so have arrived at two plausible theories. One is that in times of abundance humans had the leisure to start experimenting in the domestication of plants.

The Need for More Food

In the end, Weitzel concludes that the findings point to theory number two: that domestication came about as food supplies became less than ideal.



Social factors

Sustainable agriculture attempts to solve multiple problems with one broad solution. The goal of sustainable agricultural practices is to decrease environmental degradation due to farming while increasing crop–and thus food–output. There are many varying strategies attempting to use sustainable farming practices in order to increase rural economic development within smal…


In the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977, the term “sustainable agriculture” is defined as an integrated system of plant and animal production practices having a site-specific application that will, over the long term:
• satisfy human food and fiber needs
• enhance environmental quality and the natural resource base upon which the agriculture economy depends

Factors affecting sustainability

Practices that can cause long-term damage to soil include excessive tilling of the soil (leading to erosion) and irrigation without adequate drainage (leading to salinization).
The most important factors for a farming site are climate, soil, nutrients and water resources. Of the four, water and soil conservation are the most amenable to h…


Costs, such as environmental problems, not covered in traditional accounting systems (which take into account only the direct costs of production incurred by the farmer) are known as externalities.
Netting studied sustainability and intensive agriculture in smallholder systems through history.
There are several studies incorporating externalities such as ecosystem services, biodiversity, land degradation, and sustainable land management in economic analysis. These include The Ec…


Other practices include growing a diverse number of perennial crops in a single field, each of which would grow in separate season so as not to compete with each other for natural resources. This system would result in increased resistance to diseases and decreased effects of erosion and loss of nutrients in soil. Nitrogen fixation from legumes, for example, used in conjunction with plan…

Standards for Certification

Certification systems are important to the agriculture community and to consumers as these standards determine the sustainability of produce. There are various types of information that certification systems and standards provide for alternative farming solutions.
The USDA produces an organic label that is supported by nationalized standar…


Sustainable agriculture is a topic in international policy concerning its potential to reduce environmental risks. In 2011, the Commission on Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change, as part of its recommendations for policymakers on achieving food security in the face of climate change, urged that sustainable agriculture must be integrated into national and international …

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