When did the 2nd agricultural revolution start



What was life before the Agricultural Revolution?

Before the agricultural revolution, people were hunter-gatherers. In a hunter-gatherer society all members of the society must devote all their time to producing food, be it by picking berries or hunting buffalo. People simply do not produce enough food to provide for other people.

What was the 3rd agricultural revolution?

The Third Agricultural Revolution refers to a set of research and the development of technology transfer initiatives occurring during the Flood that increased agricultural production worldwide. The initiatives resulted in the adoption of new technologies, including Genetic Engineering, roving pens, vertical farming, and vat-grown meat. Contents

What were the causes of the Agricultural Revolution?

What events happened during the agricultural revolution?

  • Jan 1, 1700. Weather Gets Better.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1700 to Jan 1, 1895. Years.
  • Advertisements.
  • May 29, 1701. Jethro Tull invents the seed drill.
  • May 29, 1730. The Rotherham Plow.
  • May 30, 1755. Selective Breeding Introduced.
  • May 30, 1773. The Enclosure Act.
  • May 30, 1782. Seed Drill Improved.

What was invented in the Agricultural Revolution?

The Agricultural Revolution

  • New Agricultural Practices. The Agricultural Revolution, the unprecedented increase in agricultural production in Britain between the mid-17th and late 19th centuries, was linked to such new agricultural practices as crop …
  • New Agricultural Tools. …
  • The Enclosure Act. …
  • Effects of the Agricultural Revolution. …

What was the agricultural revolution?

The British Agricultural Revolution, or Second Agricultural Revolution, was an unprecedented increase in agricultural production in Britain arising from increases in labour and land productivity between the mid-17th and late 19th centuries. Agricultural output grew faster than the population over the century to 1770, and thereafter productivity remained among the highest in the world. This increase in the food supply contributed to the rapid growth of population in England and Wales, from 5.5 million in 1700 to over 9 million by 1801, though domestic production gave way increasingly to food imports in the nineteenth century as the population more than tripled to over 35 million. Using 1700 as a base year (=100), agricultural output per agricultural worker in Britain steadily increased from about 50 in 1500, to around 65 in 1550, to 90 in 1600, to over 100 by 1650, to over 150 by 1750, rapidly increasing to over 250 by 1850. The rise in productivity accelerated the decline of the agricultural share of the labour force, adding to the urban workforce on which industrialization depended: the Agricultural Revolution has therefore been cited as a cause of the Industrial Revolution .

What were the most important innovations of the British Agricultural Revolution?

One of the most important innovations of the British Agricultural Revolution was the development of the Norfolk four-course rotation, which greatly increased crop and livestock yields by improving soil fertility and reducing fallow.

What is the change in farming methods?

One important change in farming methods was the move in crop rotation to turnips and clover in place of fallow. Turnips can be grown in winter and are deep-rooted, allowing them to gather minerals unavailable to shallow-rooted crops. Clover fixes nitrogen from the atmosphere into a form of fertiliser.

What crops were grown in the convertible husbandry?

Other crops that were occasionally grown were flax and members of the mustard family . Convertible husbandry was the alternation of a field between pasture and grain. Because nitrogen builds up slowly over time in pasture, ploughing up pasture and planting grains resulted in high yields for a few years.

What were the major gains in agricultural productivity in the 19th century?

Towards the end of the 19th century, the substantial gains in British agricultural productivity were rapidly offset by competition from cheaper imports, made possible by the exploitation of new lands and advances in transportation, refrigeration, and other technologies.

What was the most important development between the 16th century and the mid-19th century?

The most important development between the 16th century and the mid-19th century was the development of private marketing. By the 19th century, marketing was nationwide and the vast majority of agricultural production was for market rather than for the farmer and his family.

What was the role of maize in the development of agriculture?

While not as vital as the potato, maize also contributed to the boost of Western European agricultural productivity.

Where Did the Agricultural Revolution Start?

As discussed in the previous section, archeologists have found evidence of early agriculture all over the world. Archeological sites in China yield evidence of early rice paddies, while sites in the Americas have tools for the cultivation of potatoes, corn, and squash.

Causes of the Agricultural Revolution

Early humans did not have a written language to record how they changed from a hunter-gatherer to agrarian lifestyle. Historians and scientists use evidence from archeological sites to theorize the causes of the first agricultural revolution.

First Agricultural Revolution Effects

The First Agricultural Revolution had a monumental impact on human history, culture, and biology. Humans changed from a nomadic species of hunter-gatherers to a sedentary or settled species of farmers and herders. Humans developed diverse cultures, which included intellectual pursuits such as religion and art.

What was the agricultural revolution?

Agricultural revolution, gradual transformation of the traditional agricultural system that began in Britain in the 18th century. Aspects of this complex transformation, which was not completed until the 19th century, included the reallocation of land ownership to make farms more compact and an increased investment in technical improvements, …

What was cut for feed in the fourth year?

The clover and ryegrass were cut for feed or grazed in the fourth year. In the winter, cattle and sheep were fed the turnips. The development of Shorthorn beef cattle through selective breeding of local cattle of the Teeswater district, Durham county, typified the advances brought about by scientific breeding.

What was the agricultural revolution?

All that changed in the 18th century with the agricultural revolution, a period of agricultural development that saw a massive and rapid increase in agricultural productivity and vast improvements in farm technology.

Who invented the seed planter?

Seed planters for corn came somewhat later, as machines to plant wheat successfully were unsuited for corn planting. In 1701, Jethro Tull invented his seed drill and is perhaps the best-known inventor of a mechanical planter.

What was the cotton gin? What was its effect on the South?

The cotton gin had turned the whole South toward the cultivation of cotton. While the South was not manufacturing any considerable proportion of the cotton it grew, the textile industry was flourishing in the North. A whole series of machines similar to those used in Great Britain had been invented in America and mills paid higher wages than in Britain. Production was also far ahead of the British mills in proportion to hands employed, which meant the U.S. was ahead of the rest of the world.

What was the agricultural revolution?

The Agricultural Revolution was a period of technological improvement and increased crop productivity that occurred during the 18th and early 19th centuries in Europe. In this lesson, learn the timeline, causes, effects and major inventions that spurred this shift in production. Create an account.

What were the factors that contributed to the agricultural revolution?

The increased agricultural production of the 18th century can be traced to four interrelated factors: The increased availability of farmland. A favorable climate.

How did crop rotation and livestock utilization affect society?

New patterns of crop rotation and livestock utilization paved the way for better crop yields, a greater diversity of wheat and vegetables and the ability to support more livestock . These changes impacted society as the population became better nourished and healthier.

How did the boost in livestock affect the diet of much of Europe?

Not only were Europeans consuming more meat, but the livestock was producing much needed fertilizer for crops. The addition of fertilizer allowed an improved production rate per acre.

What did Charles Townshend use to plant his own farm?

Tull also maintained that one should use a hoe to break up the soil and allow air and moisture in. Charles Townshend used the four-field system on his own land. Testing the system on his own farm, he planted wheat in the first field, clover in the second, oats in the third and turnips in the fourth.

Why were turnips important to farmers?

The cultivation of turnips was important because they could be left in the ground through the winter.

What crops were introduced to Europe in 1750?

During this time, new crops were becoming popular in Europe. For instance, potatoes and maize were brought from America and introduced to Europe. These crops were grown in large scale after 1750. In particular, the potato became a staple crop in places such as Ireland and Germany.

Where did the second agricultural revolution take place?

The Second Agricultural Revolution, also recognized as the British Agricultural Revolution, took place first in England in the 17th and early 18th centuries. From there it transmits to Europe, North America, and around the world.

When did the agricultural revolution start?

Agricultural Revolution is thought to have started about 12,000 years ago . It coincided with the end of the last ice age and the starting of the current geological span, the Holocene. And it forever transformed how humans live, eat, and interact, paving the path for modern civilization.

What were the first crops to be introduced in the agricultural revolution?

Inventions in the First Agricultural Revolution. Plant domestication: Cereals such as emmer wheat, einkorn wheat, and barley were among the first crops naturalized by Neolithic farming societies in the Fertile Crescent. These early farmers also naturalized lentils, chickpeas, peas, and flax.

What were the main causes of the agricultural revolution?

The Agricultural Revolution started in Great Britain around the turn of the 18th century. Several important events, which will be discussed in more detail later, include: 1 The perfection of the horse-drawn seed press, which would make farming less labor-intensive and more productive. 2 The large-scale growth of new crops, such as potato and maize, by 1750. 3 The passing of the Enclosure Laws, limiting the common land available to small farmers in 1760.

What was the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture?

This transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture materialized very slowly as humans selected crops for cultivation, animals for domestication, then continued to select plants and animals for desirable tricks. The development of agriculture marks a major turning point in human history and evolution.

Where did farming come from?

Farming is thought to have appeared first in the Fertile Curve of the Middle East, where multiple groups of people evolved the practice separately. Thus, the “agricultural revolution” was likely a series of revolutions that materialized at different times in different places.

When did humans start farming?

Humans are thought to have gathered plants and their seeds as early as 23,000 years ago, and to have initiated farming cereal grains like barley as early as 11,000 years ago . Afterward, they shifted on to protein-rich foods like peas and lentils.

What was the shift to agriculture from hunting and gathering called?

Also called the Agricultural Revolution, the shift to agriculture from hunting and gathering changed humanity forever. By Erin Blakemore.

When did humans start farming?

Humans are thought to have gathered plants and their seeds as early as 23,000 years ago, and to have started farming cereal grains like barley as early as 11,000 years ago . Afterward, they moved on to protein-rich foods like peas and lentils.

When did humans start domesticating animals?

Evidence of sheep and goat herding has been found in Iraq and Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) as far back as about 12,000 years ago.



The British Agricultural Revolution, or Second Agricultural Revolution, was an unprecedented increase in agricultural production in Britain arising from increases in labour and land productivity between the mid-17th and late 19th centuries. Agricultural output grew faster than the population over the hundred-year period ending in 1770, and thereafter productivity remained among the hi…

Major developments and innovations

The British Agricultural Revolution was the result of the complex interaction of social, economic and farming technological changes. Major developments and innovations include:
• Norfolk four-course crop rotation: Fodder crops, particularly turnips and clover, replaced leaving the land fallow.
• The Dutch improved the Chinese plough so that it could be pulled with fewer oxen or horses.

British agriculture, 1800–1900

Besides the organic fertilisers in manure, new fertilisers were slowly discovered. Massive sodium nitrate (NaNO3) deposits found in the Atacama Desert, Chile, were brought under British financiers like John Thomas North and imports were started. Chile was happy to allow the exports of these sodium nitrates by allowing the British to use their capital to develop the mining and imposing a hefty export tax to enrich their treasury. Massive deposits of sea bird guano (11–16% N, 8–12% p…


The Agricultural Revolution was part of a long process of improvement, but sound advice on farming began to appear in England in the mid-17th century, from writers such as Samuel Hartlib, Walter Blith and others, and the overall agricultural productivity of Britain started to grow significantly only in the period of the Agricultural Revolution. It is estimated that total agricultural output grew 2.7-fold between 1700 and 1870 and output per worker at a similar rate.

See also

• Agriculture in the United Kingdom#History
• Scottish Agricultural Revolution

Further reading

• Ang, James B., Rajabrata Banerjee, and Jakob B. Madsen. “Innovation and productivity advances in British agriculture: 1620–1850”. Southern Economic Journal 80.1 (2013): 162–186.
• Campbell, Bruce M. S., and Mark Overton. “A new perspective on medieval and early modern agriculture: six centuries of Norfolk farming c. 1250-c. 1850.” Past and Present (1993): 38-105. JSTOR 651030.

External links

• “Agricultural Revolution in England 1500–1850″—BBC History

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