When did the british agricultural revolution start


18th century

What was bad about the Agricultural Revolution?

When the Agricultural Revolution occurred, the combination of overcrowding of both humans and domesticated animals and switching to an unvaried cereal- and grain-based diet caused an assortment of health issues.

What were the result of the agricultural revolution in Britain?

​The results of Agrarian revolution In Britain

  • Improved farming methods, which led to increased food production.
  • Population increase as food was abundant. …
  • A large variety of crops e.g. …
  • New animal breeds such as the Friesian cow as well as Leicester and Suffolk sheep, among others.
  • large scale farming in place of subsistence farming.
  • Mechanization of farming as cultivation of large farms was adopted.

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What was the Agricultural Revolution and what causes it?

Causes of the Agricultural Revolution. What might be deemed the first agricultural revolution was when prehistoric man discovered how to cultivate his own food. This marked the move from a nomadic hunter-gatherer society to one of permanent settlements, villages, towns and eventually, cities. Another development that many historians consider to …

Which was common in England after the Agricultural Revolution?

agricultural revolution, gradual transformation of the traditional agricultural system that began in Britainin the 18th century. Aspects of this complex transformation, which was not completed until the 19th century, included the reallocation of land ownership to make farms more compact and an increased investment in technical improvements, such as new machinery, better drainage, scientific methods of breeding, and experimentation with new crops and systems of crop rotation.


When did the Agricultural Revolution start and end in Britain?

The British Agricultural Revolution, or Second Agricultural Revolution, was an unprecedented increase in agricultural production in Britain arising from increases in labour and land productivity between the mid-17th and late 19th centuries.

When did the Agricultural Revolution start?

about 12,000 years agoThe Neolithic Revolution—also referred to as the Agricultural Revolution—is thought to have begun about 12,000 years ago. It coincided with the end of the last ice age and the beginning of the current geological epoch, the Holocene.

Why did the Agricultural Revolution start in Great Britain?

Agricultural Revolution: The unprecedented increase in agricultural production in Britain due to increases in labor and land productivity between the mid-17th and late 19th centuries.

When did the Agricultural Revolution start and end?

The Agricultural Revolution, from 1750 on to 1850, can best be explained as a massive success in the development of European populations. In pre-revolution England, the population was basically capped by the ability of the British to provide homegrown food.

How did Agricultural Revolution start?

The first was caused by humans changing from being hunter-gatherers to farmers and herders. The second was caused by improvements to livestock breeding, farming equipment, and crop rotation. The third was caused by plant breeding and new techniques in irrigation, fertilization, and pesticides.

What was the 1st Agricultural Revolution?

The Neolithic Revolution, or the (First) Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly large population possible.

What are the 3 agricultural revolutions?

Key Takeaways: Agriculture, Food Production, and Rural Land UseThere were three agricultural revolutions that changed history. … There are two primary methods of farming in the world. … Von Thunen’s model of agricultural land use focuses on transportation.More items…•

Where was the first Agricultural Revolution?

the Fertile CrescentThe Neolithic Revolution started around 10,000 B.C. in the Fertile Crescent, a boomerang-shaped region of the Middle East where humans first took up farming. Shortly after, Stone Age humans in other parts of the world also began to practice agriculture.

What led to the Agricultural Revolution of the eighteenth century?

Contributing Factors to the Agricultural Revolution The increased availability of farmland. A favorable climate. More livestock. Improved crop yield.

When did the Second Agricultural Revolution start?

The Second Agricultural Revolution, also known as the British Agricultural Revolution, took place first in England in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. From there it spread to Europe, North America, and around the world.

What was Agricultural Revolution?

Summary. The agricultural revolution is the name given to a number of cultural transformations that initially allowed humans to change from a hunting and gathering subsistence to one of agriculture and animal domestications.

When was the Agricultural Revolution in Europe?

18th centuryDuring the 18th century, the improvement in agricultural techniques led to higher yields and better food quality: the extension of farmland, the introduction of new crops and the end of fallowing thanks to crop rotation.

What is the first agricultural revolution?

The First Agricultural Revolution is also called the Neolithic Revolution. This revolution began around 10,000 B.C. Humans made significant changes…

What are the 3 agricultural revolutions?

The First Agricultural Revolution, or the Neolithic Revolution, began around 10,000 B.C. Humans shifted from being hunter-gathers to being subsiste…

What is the agricultural revolution and why is it important?

An agricultural revolution is when farming techniques drastically improve within a relatively short period of time. This leads to a greater product…

What caused the Agricultural Revolution?

Each of the Agricultural Revolutions have different causes. The first was caused by humans changing from being hunter-gatherers to farmers and herd…

What are the characteristics of the agricultural revolution?

The characteristics of the agricultural revolution are the changes in how food is produced and the amount of food produced.

How did the Agricultural Revolution affect people’s lives?

The agricultural revolutions affected how people worked and got their food. The first caused people to grow crops and raise animals for food. The s…

What was the agricultural revolution?

The British Agricultural Revolution, or Second Agricultural Revolution, was an unprecedented increase in agricultural production in Britain arising from increases in labour and land productivity between the mid-17th and late 19th centuries. Agricultural output grew faster than the population over the century to 1770, and thereafter productivity remained among the highest in the world. This increase in the food supply contributed to the rapid growth of population in England and Wales, from 5.5 million in 1700 to over 9 million by 1801, though domestic production gave way increasingly to food imports in the nineteenth century as the population more than tripled to over 35 million. Using 1700 as a base year (=100), agricultural output per agricultural worker in Britain steadily increased from about 50 in 1500, to around 65 in 1550, to 90 in 1600, to over 100 by 1650, to over 150 by 1750, rapidly increasing to over 250 by 1850. The rise in productivity accelerated the decline of the agricultural share of the labour force, adding to the urban workforce on which industrialization depended: the Agricultural Revolution has therefore been cited as a cause of the Industrial Revolution .

What were the most important innovations of the British Agricultural Revolution?

One of the most important innovations of the British Agricultural Revolution was the development of the Norfolk four-course rotation, which greatly increased crop and livestock yields by improving soil fertility and reducing fallow.

What is the change in farming methods?

One important change in farming methods was the move in crop rotation to turnips and clover in place of fallow. Turnips can be grown in winter and are deep-rooted, allowing them to gather minerals unavailable to shallow-rooted crops. Clover fixes nitrogen from the atmosphere into a form of fertiliser.

What were the major gains in agricultural productivity in the 19th century?

Towards the end of the 19th century, the substantial gains in British agricultural productivity were rapidly offset by competition from cheaper imports, made possible by the exploitation of new lands and advances in transportation, refrigeration, and other technologies.

What was the most important development between the 16th century and the mid-19th century?

The most important development between the 16th century and the mid-19th century was the development of private marketing. By the 19th century, marketing was nationwide and the vast majority of agricultural production was for market rather than for the farmer and his family.

What was the role of maize in the development of agriculture?

While not as vital as the potato, maize also contributed to the boost of Western European agricultural productivity.

What was the cause of the Industrial Revolution?

The rise in productivity accelerated the decline of the agricultural share of the labour force, adding to the urban workforce on which industrialization depended: the Agricultural Revolution has therefore been cited as a cause of the Industrial Revolution .

When did the agricultural revolution start?

Agricultural Revolution in England 1500 – 1850. From the 16th century onwards, an essentially organic agriculture was gradually replaced by a farming system that depended on energy-intensive inputs. Mark Overton assesses the impact of this agrarian revolution.

Why did the agricultural revolution happen after 1750?

Feeding sheep on turnips © A second reason why we can claim an agricultural revolution in the century after 1750 is that as each agricultural worker produced more food, so the proportion of the workforce in agriculture fell. This falling proportion of workers in agriculture enabled the proportion working in industry and services to rise: in other words improved agricultural production made the industrial revolution possible, and many would regard the industrial revolution as the beginning of the modern world. By 1850 only 22 per cent of the British workforce was in agriculture; the smallest proportion for any country in the world.

Why did the fallow land occur?

This was because one of the purposes of the fallow was to clear the land of weeds by ploughing, but a crop of turnips sown in rows could be hoed to remove weeds while it was growing . Thus fallow land was about 20 per cent of the arable area in England in 1700, and steadily declined to reach only 4 per cent in 1871.

What were the major changes in the agricultural revolution?

For many years the agricultural revolution in England was thought to have occurred because of three major changes: the selective breeding of livestock; the removal of common property rights to land; and new systems of cropping, involving turnips and clover. All this was thought to have been due to a group of heroic individuals, who, according to one account, are ‘a band of men whose names are, or ought to be, household words with English farmers: Jethro Tull, Lord Townshend, Arthur Young, Bakewell, Coke of Holkham and the Collings.’

Why did the output of agriculture grow?

One reason output grew was through new farming systems involving the rotation of turnips and clover, although these were part of the general intensification of agricultural production, with more food being produced from the same area of land.

What was the limiting factor in determining cereal yields before about 1830?

Nitrogen… was the ‘limiting factor’ in determining cereal yields before about 1830. Cereal yields also increased. Wheat yields increased by about a quarter between 1700 and 1800, and then by about a half between 1800 and 1850, and the most recent research emphasises the early 19th century as the period of crucial change.

When did clover start growing?

Legumes had been sown since the Middle Ages in the form of peas, beans and vetches, but from the mid-17th century farmers began to grow clover, both white and red, for the same purpose, and by the 19th century had dramatically increased the quantity of nitrogen in the soil available for cereal crops.

What was the agricultural revolution?

The Agricultural Revolution was a period of technological improvement and increased crop productivity that occurred during the 18th and early 19th centuries in Europe. In this lesson, learn the timeline, causes, effects and major inventions that spurred this shift in production. Create an account.

What were the factors that contributed to the agricultural revolution?

The increased agricultural production of the 18th century can be traced to four interrelated factors: The increased availability of farmland. A favorable climate.

How did crop rotation and livestock utilization affect society?

New patterns of crop rotation and livestock utilization paved the way for better crop yields, a greater diversity of wheat and vegetables and the ability to support more livestock . These changes impacted society as the population became better nourished and healthier.

How did the boost in livestock affect the diet of much of Europe?

Not only were Europeans consuming more meat, but the livestock was producing much needed fertilizer for crops. The addition of fertilizer allowed an improved production rate per acre.

What did Charles Townshend use to plant his own farm?

Tull also maintained that one should use a hoe to break up the soil and allow air and moisture in. Charles Townshend used the four-field system on his own land. Testing the system on his own farm, he planted wheat in the first field, clover in the second, oats in the third and turnips in the fourth.

Why were turnips important to farmers?

The cultivation of turnips was important because they could be left in the ground through the winter.

What crops were introduced to Europe in 1750?

During this time, new crops were becoming popular in Europe. For instance, potatoes and maize were brought from America and introduced to Europe. These crops were grown in large scale after 1750. In particular, the potato became a staple crop in places such as Ireland and Germany.

Where Did the Agricultural Revolution Start?

As discussed in the previous section, archeologists have found evidence of early agriculture all over the world. Archeological sites in China yield evidence of early rice paddies, while sites in the Americas have tools for the cultivation of potatoes, corn, and squash.

Causes of the Agricultural Revolution

Early humans did not have a written language to record how they changed from a hunter-gatherer to agrarian lifestyle. Historians and scientists use evidence from archeological sites to theorize the causes of the first agricultural revolution.

First Agricultural Revolution Effects

The First Agricultural Revolution had a monumental impact on human history, culture, and biology. Humans changed from a nomadic species of hunter-gatherers to a sedentary or settled species of farmers and herders. Humans developed diverse cultures, which included intellectual pursuits such as religion and art.

What was the British agricultural revolution?

The British Agricultural Revolution refers to the period of change from the traditional to modern farming systems in Britain that occurred between the mid-1600s and the late 1800s. Before the revolution, the open-field system of cultivation was used which caused cattle overgrazing, uncontrolled breeding, and spread of animal diseases.

How did the agricultural revolution affect the industrial revolution?

A further increase in population provided labor for the industries. The agricultural revolution, which led to a greater abundance of food, had led to significant reductions in the prices of foodstuffs. The population thus had more disposable income to spend on industrial products. The need to sustain food production inspired more inventions in technology which facilitated the industrial revolution. During the agricultural period, the United Kingdom became economically prosperous and wealthy as farmers acquired capital to invest in industries and technology. The innovations in Agricultural revolution, coupled with improved infrastructure further fueled the industrial revolution.

What were the factors that facilitated the Revolution?

Several factors facilitated the revolution, the first being acts of Parliamentary legislation regarding land enclosure. A series of Parliamentary legislation in the United Kingdom promoted land consolidation, either owned or rented. The aim of this system was to establish separate chunks of land to allow efficient and economical utilization of land. The acts laid the foundation for a land-owning system in Britain. Large tracts of land could be utilized for agricultural purposes, and productivity increased. The formation of agricultural societies and annual shows facilitated innovation and the spread of ideas. More efficient methods were adopted as knowledge became widespread. Other factors were changing climatic conditions, increased populations of livestock, innovations and higher yields.

What were the innovations of the Revolution?

Notable innovations included the seed drill, which was invented by Jethro Tull and enabled seeds to be planted deep into the soil mechanically. Previously, seeds had been planted on the top layer and were quickly washed away or lost.

What was the main crop rotation system?

The crop rotation system, championed by agriculturalists such as Charles Townshend, was widely adopted by farmers. In the system, fodder crops such as turnips and clover were planted instead of leaving the land fallow. Clover and Turnips were fed to cattle and also improved the soil fertility.

What was the role of climate and weather patterns in the mid-1600s?

In the mid-1600s, the climate in England became colder and wetter, and intelligent seed selection became even more crucial for British farmers.

Who championed the selective breeding for sheep to develop larger breeds with long and lustrous wool?

The Dishley Longhorn set precedence for more high quality and large-sized cattle to be developed. Robert Bakewell championed the selective breeding for sheep to develop larger breed with long and lustrous wool such as the Lincoln Longwool and New Leicester.

When did the agricultural revolution take place?

The Agricultural Revolution that swept through Europe during the 18th and 19th centuries came many years after the first Agricultural Revolution recorded by historians, which took place around 10,000 B.C.

What were the main causes of the agricultural revolution?

The Agricultural Revolution that took place during the 18th century in Europe was caused by four primary factors, which were the increased availability of and access to farmland, a warm and stable climate for crop production, an increase in number of livestock and a more voluminous crop yield.

Why did the second revolution occur?

While the first revolution introduced a societal change from nomadic lifestyles to stationary farms and villages, the second revolution occurred because of an influx of new technologies that improved farming techniques and made farming more efficient.

Why did the warmer temperatures help the growing season?

Warmer temperatures also brought longer growing seasons, which in turn allowed for production of more crops. Machines replaced human labor, minimizing costs for farmers and expediting production, and crops were grown on larger scales, then harvested and shipped for sale. ADVERTISEMENT.

What was the Great Depression of British agriculture?

The Great Depression of British Agriculture: a history. What was a golden age for fieldsports was a depressing time for British farming , although all those unproductive acres might inadvertently have resulted in maximising sporting potential. The highly successful horsedrawn mower from Bamford, the “Royal” No 5.

What happened to farm labourers in the 19th century?

By the end of the 19th century, farm labourers were driven from agriculture into any other employment available, often in the towns. Only the most tenacious farmers succeeded, however, and during the First World War a large amount of skills, muscle and horses were lost to the front line.

Why were beef and sheep so poor in the 19th century?

Even beef and sheep were struggling due to imports, with overseas markets able to feed stock at lower cost than our domestic producers. The late 19th century was a difficult time for the wealthy and landed gentry who could no longer boast about their vast acres of productive agriculture.

Who is the founder of the yellow farm machine?

The initials of Henry Bamford’s great grandson, Joseph Cyril, are carried on the majority of yellow farm machines today.

What did the Crimson Hillsides of Sainfoin feed?

Crimson hillsides of sainfoin fed stables of horse power and sustained fertility in the soils. Estates supported huge communities with labourers who worked the land. In the early and mid 19th century rural landowners were the wealthiest class in the wealthiest nation, growing nearly 10 million acres of cereals.



Major developments and innovations

The British Agricultural Revolution was the result of the complex interaction of social, economic and farming technological changes. Major developments and innovations include:
• Norfolk four-course crop rotation: Fodder crops, particularly turnips and clover, replaced leaving the land fallow.
• The Dutch improved the Chinese plough so that it could be pulled with fewer oxen or horses.

British agriculture, 1800–1900

Besides the organic fertilisers in manure, new fertilisers were slowly discovered. Massive sodium nitrate (NaNO3) deposits found in the Atacama Desert, Chile, were brought under British financiers like John Thomas North and imports were started. Chile was happy to allow the exports of these sodium nitrates by allowing the British to use their capital to develop the mining and imposing a hefty export tax to enrich their treasury. Massive deposits of sea bird guano (11–16% N, 8–12% p…


The Agricultural Revolution was part of a long process of improvement, but sound advice on farming began to appear in England in the mid-17th century, from writers such as Samuel Hartlib, Walter Blith and others, and the overall agricultural productivity of Britain started to grow significantly only in the period of the Agricultural Revolution. It is estimated that total agricultural output grew 2.7-fold between 1700 and 1870 and output per worker at a similar rate.

See also

• Agriculture in the United Kingdom#History
• Scottish Agricultural Revolution

Further reading

• Ang, James B., Rajabrata Banerjee, and Jakob B. Madsen. “Innovation and productivity advances in British agriculture: 1620–1850”. Southern Economic Journal 80.1 (2013): 162–186.
• Campbell, Bruce M. S., and Mark Overton. “A new perspective on medieval and early modern agriculture: six centuries of Norfolk farming c. 1250-c. 1850.” Past and Present (1993): 38-105. JSTOR 651030.

External links

• “Agricultural Revolution in England 1500–1850″—BBC History

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