When did the second agricultural revolution began


The British Agricultural Revolution, or Second Agricultural Revolution, was an unprecedented increase in agricultural production in Britain arising from increases in labour and land productivity between the mid-17th and late 19th centuries.

How did the 2nd Agricultural Revolution start?

Each of the Agricultural Revolutions have different causes. The first was caused by humans changing from being hunter-gatherers to farmers and herders. The second was caused by improvements to livestock breeding, farming equipment, and crop rotation.

What happened in the 2nd agricultural revolution?

The Second Agricultural Revolution accompanied the Industrial Revolution that began in Great Britain in the 18th century. It involved the mechanization of agricultural production, advances in transportation, development of large-scale irrigation, and changes to consumption patterns of agricultural goods.

When did the Agricultural Revolution start?

about 12,000 years agoThe Neolithic Revolution—also referred to as the Agricultural Revolution—is thought to have begun about 12,000 years ago. It coincided with the end of the last ice age and the beginning of the current geological epoch, the Holocene.

When did the 3rd Agricultural Revolution start?

The Green Revolution, or the Third Agricultural Revolution (after the Neolithic Revolution and the British Agricultural Revolution), is the set of research technology transfer initiatives occurring between 1950 and the late 1960s, that increased agricultural production in parts of the world, beginning most markedly in …

Where did the 2nd agricultural revolution start?

EnglandThe Second Agricultural Revolution, also known as the British Agricultural Revolution, took place first in England in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. From there it spread to Europe, North America, and around the world.

What is the first and Second Agricultural Revolution?

The First Agricultural Revolution was the transition from hunting and gathering to planting and sustaining. The Second Agricultural Revolution increased the productivity of farming through mechanization and access to market areas due to better transportation.

Where did the 3rd Agricultural Revolution start?

The Third Agricultural Revolution started in Europe at the end of World War II during the 1950s. The application of nitrogen fertilizer allowed large farms to be established that could produce feed for livestock at rates that were not achievable elsewhere before this development.

What was the 1st Agricultural Revolution?

The Neolithic Revolution, or the (First) Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly large population possible.

Where did the Agricultural Revolution start?

The Neolithic Revolution started around 10,000 B.C. in the Fertile Crescent, a boomerang-shaped region of the Middle East where humans first took up farming. Shortly after, Stone Age humans in other parts of the world also began to practice agriculture.

What is the 4th agricultural revolution?

The fourth agricultural revolution, much like the fourth industrial revolution, refers to the anticipated changes from new technologies, particularly the use of AI to make smarter planning decisions and power autonomous robots.

What are the 3 agricultural revolutions?

Agricultural revolution may refer to:First Agricultural Revolution (circa 10,000 BC), the prehistoric transition from hunting and gathering to settled agriculture (also known as the Neolithic Revolution)Arab Agricultural Revolution (8th–13th century), The spread of new crops and advanced techniques in the Muslim world.More items…

What was the 3rd agricultural revolution called?

The Green RevolutionThe different techniques that promoted the increase in agricultural productivity was called The Green Revolution, also Third Agricultural Revolution, and was based mainly on the use of varieties of high-yielding seeds, cultivated in large areas (monoculture), and the use of large amounts of fertilizers, phytoregulators …

What is the first agricultural revolution?

The First Agricultural Revolution is also called the Neolithic Revolution. This revolution began around 10,000 B.C. Humans made significant changes…

What are the 3 agricultural revolutions?

The First Agricultural Revolution, or the Neolithic Revolution, began around 10,000 B.C. Humans shifted from being hunter-gathers to being subsiste…

What is the agricultural revolution and why is it important?

An agricultural revolution is when farming techniques drastically improve within a relatively short period of time. This leads to a greater product…

What caused the Agricultural Revolution?

Each of the Agricultural Revolutions have different causes. The first was caused by humans changing from being hunter-gatherers to farmers and herd…

What are the characteristics of the agricultural revolution?

The characteristics of the agricultural revolution are the changes in how food is produced and the amount of food produced.

How did the Agricultural Revolution affect people’s lives?

The agricultural revolutions affected how people worked and got their food. The first caused people to grow crops and raise animals for food. The s…

What was the agricultural revolution?

The British Agricultural Revolution, or Second Agricultural Revolution, was an unprecedented increase in agricultural production in Britain arising from increases in labour and land productivity between the mid-17th and late 19th centuries. Agricultural output grew faster than the population over the century to 1770, and thereafter productivity remained among the highest in the world. This increase in the food supply contributed to the rapid growth of population in England and Wales, from 5.5 million in 1700 to over 9 million by 1801, though domestic production gave way increasingly to food imports in the nineteenth century as the population more than tripled to over 35 million. Using 1700 as a base year (=100), agricultural output per agricultural worker in Britain steadily increased from about 50 in 1500, to around 65 in 1550, to 90 in 1600, to over 100 by 1650, to over 150 by 1750, rapidly increasing to over 250 by 1850. The rise in productivity accelerated the decline of the agricultural share of the labour force, adding to the urban workforce on which industrialization depended: the Agricultural Revolution has therefore been cited as a cause of the Industrial Revolution .

What were the most important innovations of the British Agricultural Revolution?

One of the most important innovations of the British Agricultural Revolution was the development of the Norfolk four-course rotation, which greatly increased crop and livestock yields by improving soil fertility and reducing fallow.

What is the change in farming methods?

One important change in farming methods was the move in crop rotation to turnips and clover in place of fallow. Turnips can be grown in winter and are deep-rooted, allowing them to gather minerals unavailable to shallow-rooted crops. Clover fixes nitrogen from the atmosphere into a form of fertiliser.

What crops were grown in the convertible husbandry?

Other crops that were occasionally grown were flax and members of the mustard family . Convertible husbandry was the alternation of a field between pasture and grain. Because nitrogen builds up slowly over time in pasture, ploughing up pasture and planting grains resulted in high yields for a few years.

What were the major gains in agricultural productivity in the 19th century?

Towards the end of the 19th century, the substantial gains in British agricultural productivity were rapidly offset by competition from cheaper imports, made possible by the exploitation of new lands and advances in transportation, refrigeration, and other technologies.

What was the most important development between the 16th century and the mid-19th century?

The most important development between the 16th century and the mid-19th century was the development of private marketing. By the 19th century, marketing was nationwide and the vast majority of agricultural production was for market rather than for the farmer and his family.

What was the role of maize in the development of agriculture?

While not as vital as the potato, maize also contributed to the boost of Western European agricultural productivity.

What was the second agricultural revolution?

The second agricultural revolution improved the methods of cultivation, harvesting, and the storage of farm produce. It coincided with the Industrial Revolution. The second agricultural revolution benefited from the industrial revolution. It was introduced by the governments of Western Europe, such as Denmark and the United Kingdom.

How did the second agricultural revolution help farmers?

It helped agriculture develop quickly so farmers could produce enough food for the growing population. During the second agricultural revolution, there were a reduction in the number of people needed to operate the farms. Farmers began to use a technique called crop rotation.

Why did farmers use crop rotation?

The second agricultural revolution made it easier on farmers because they could do their jobs much quicker than before.

Where Did the Agricultural Revolution Start?

As discussed in the previous section, archeologists have found evidence of early agriculture all over the world. Archeological sites in China yield evidence of early rice paddies, while sites in the Americas have tools for the cultivation of potatoes, corn, and squash.

Causes of the Agricultural Revolution

Early humans did not have a written language to record how they changed from a hunter-gatherer to agrarian lifestyle. Historians and scientists use evidence from archeological sites to theorize the causes of the first agricultural revolution.

First Agricultural Revolution Effects

The First Agricultural Revolution had a monumental impact on human history, culture, and biology. Humans changed from a nomadic species of hunter-gatherers to a sedentary or settled species of farmers and herders. Humans developed diverse cultures, which included intellectual pursuits such as religion and art.

What was the agricultural revolution?

All that changed in the 18th century with the agricultural revolution, a period of agricultural development that saw a massive and rapid increase in agricultural productivity and vast improvements in farm technology.

Who invented the seed planter?

Seed planters for corn came somewhat later, as machines to plant wheat successfully were unsuited for corn planting. In 1701, Jethro Tull invented his seed drill and is perhaps the best-known inventor of a mechanical planter.

What was the cotton gin? What was its effect on the South?

The cotton gin had turned the whole South toward the cultivation of cotton. While the South was not manufacturing any considerable proportion of the cotton it grew, the textile industry was flourishing in the North. A whole series of machines similar to those used in Great Britain had been invented in America and mills paid higher wages than in Britain. Production was also far ahead of the British mills in proportion to hands employed, which meant the U.S. was ahead of the rest of the world.

What happened between the eighth century and the eighteenth century?

Updated August 11, 2019. Between the eighth century and the eighteenth, the tools of farming basically stayed the same and few advancements in technology were made. This meant that the farmers of George Washington’s day had no better tools than the farmers of Julius Caesar’s day.

The First Agricultural Revolution

The First Agricultural Revolution started in 2000 BC. This revolution caused people to slowly go from hunting and gathering to the domestication of plants and animals. This changed the way humans live because they could control their food and didn’t have to fight for it.

The Second Agricultural Revolution

The second agricultural revolution occurred from 1700 to 1900 this revolution occurred at the same time as the industrial revolution and this is why mechanization was a major role in this revolution.

The Third Agricultural Revolution

The third agricultural revolution started not to long ago and is currently going on. In this agricultural revolution farming has started to change a lot with new gas and diesel tractors that make it so you can have less laborers but have increased land sizes.

What are GMOs?

Genetically modified organisms are crops or animals that scientists change certain traits of the crop or animal so it grows bigger and faster. This made farming a lot easier because crops don’t need to be tended to as much and animals can grow a lot faster and fatter.

What was the agricultural revolution?

The Agricultural Revolution was a period of technological improvement and increased crop productivity that occurred during the 18th and early 19th centuries in Europe. In this lesson, learn the timeline, causes, effects and major inventions that spurred this shift in production. Create an account.

What were the factors that contributed to the agricultural revolution?

The increased agricultural production of the 18th century can be traced to four interrelated factors: The increased availability of farmland. A favorable climate.

How did crop rotation and livestock utilization affect society?

New patterns of crop rotation and livestock utilization paved the way for better crop yields, a greater diversity of wheat and vegetables and the ability to support more livestock . These changes impacted society as the population became better nourished and healthier.

What did Charles Townshend use to plant his own farm?

Tull also maintained that one should use a hoe to break up the soil and allow air and moisture in. Charles Townshend used the four-field system on his own land. Testing the system on his own farm, he planted wheat in the first field, clover in the second, oats in the third and turnips in the fourth.

Why were turnips important to farmers?

The cultivation of turnips was important because they could be left in the ground through the winter.

What crops were introduced to Europe in 1750?

During this time, new crops were becoming popular in Europe. For instance, potatoes and maize were brought from America and introduced to Europe. These crops were grown in large scale after 1750. In particular, the potato became a staple crop in places such as Ireland and Germany.

Why was the crop of wheat so popular in Europe?

Because this crop was incredibly easy to grow, was high in carbohydrates, calories and essential vitamins and could be stored successfully , it became a necessity for many of Europe’s poor. Landowners began to enclose fields that were formerly open.

Agricultural Revolution Quotes in Sapiens

The Sapiens quotes below are all either spoken by Agricultural Revolution or refer to Agricultural Revolution. For each quote, you can also see the other terms and themes related to it (each theme is indicated by its own dot and icon, like this one: ).

Agricultural Revolution Term Timeline in Sapiens

The timeline below shows where the term Agricultural Revolution appears in Sapiens. The colored dots and icons indicate which themes are associated with that appearance.

What was the second industrial revolution?

The Second Industrial Revolution was a period of rapid industrial development, primarily in the United Kingdom, Germany and the United States, but also in France, the Low Countries, Italy and Japan. It followed on from the First Industrial Revolution that began in Britain in the late 18th century that then spread throughout Western Europe. While the First Revolution was driven by limited use of steam engines, interchangeable parts and mass production, and was largely water-powered (especially in the United States), the Second was characterized by the build-out of railroads, large-scale iron and steel production, widespread use of machinery in manufacturing, greatly increased use of steam power, widespread use of the telegraph, use of petroleum and the beginning of electrification. It also was the period during which modern organizational methods for operating large scale businesses over vast areas came into use.

When did the Industrial Revolution end?

The First Industrial Revolution, which ended in the middle of the 19th century, was punctuated by a slowdown in important inventions before the Second Industrial Revolution in 1870.

What was the most important thing in agriculture in 1870?

By 1870 the work done by steam engines exceeded that done by animal and human power. Horses and mules remained important in agriculture until the development of the internal combustion tractor near the end of the Second Industrial Revolution.

How did railroads and coal contribute to the Second Industrial Revolution?

Railroads allowed cheap transportation of materials and products, which in turn led to cheap rails to build more roads. Railroads also benefited from cheap coal for their steam locomotives. This synergy led to the laying of 75,000 miles of track in the U.S. in the 1880s, the largest amount anywhere in world history.

Where was the first central distribution plant?

The first large scale central distribution supply plant was opened at Holborn Viaduct in London in 1882 and later at Pearl Street Station in New York City. Three-phase rotating magnetic field of an AC motor. The three poles are each connected to a separate wire. Each wire carries current 120 degrees apart in phase.

What was the most important advance in fuel efficiency of the blast furnace?

Hot blast was the single most important advance in fuel efficiency of the blast furnace as it greatly reduced the fuel consumption for making pig iron, and was one of the most important technologies developed during the Industrial Revolution. Falling costs for producing wrought iron coincided with the emergence of the railway in the 1830s.



British agriculture, 1800–1900

Besides the organic fertilisers in manure, new fertilisers were slowly discovered. Massive sodium nitrate (NaNO3) deposits found in the Atacama Desert, Chile, were brought under British financiers like John Thomas North and imports were started. Chile was happy to allow the exports of these sodium nitrates by allowing the British to use their capital to develop the mining and imposing a hefty export tax to enrich their treasury. Massive deposits of sea bird guano (11–16% N, 8–12% p…

Major developments and innovations

The British Agricultural Revolution was the result of the complex interaction of social, economic and farming technological changes. Major developments and innovations include:
• Norfolk four-course crop rotation: Fodder crops, particularly turnips and clover, replaced leaving the land fallow.
• The Dutch improved the Chinese plough so that it could be pulled with fewer oxen or horses.


The Agricultural Revolution was part of a long process of improvement, but sound advice on farming began to appear in England in the mid-17th century, from writers such as Samuel Hartlib, Walter Blith and others, and the overall agricultural productivity of Britain started to grow significantly only in the period of the Agricultural Revolution. It is estimated that total agricultural output grew 2.7-fold between 1700 and 1870 and output per worker at a similar rate.

See also

• Agriculture in the United Kingdom#History
• Scottish Agricultural Revolution

Further reading

• Ang, James B., Rajabrata Banerjee, and Jakob B. Madsen. “Innovation and productivity advances in British agriculture: 1620–1850”. Southern Economic Journal 80.1 (2013): 162–186.
• Campbell, Bruce M. S., and Mark Overton. “A new perspective on medieval and early modern agriculture: six centuries of Norfolk farming c. 1250-c. 1850.” Past and Present (1993): 38-105. JSTOR 651030.

External links

• “Agricultural Revolution in England 1500–1850″—BBC History

Leave a Comment