Where did agriculture begin in india


Indian agriculture began by 9000 BCE on north-west India with the early cultivation of plants, and domestication of crops and animals. Indian subcontinent agriculture was the largest producer of wheat and grain.


Why is India called an agricultural country?

  • The farmers having small farms are selling their farms and somehow there is loss of agricultural land in infrastructure, but the farmers having medium or big farms are farming well.
  • Now there are rules to prevent loss of agricultural land. …
  • Now, the main thing because of which you are thinking

How can agriculture be made prosperous in India?

  • Remove the farm bills passed to destroy the sector.
  • Improve APMCs and create more regulations.
  • Study Bihar and UP models where the farm bills already have been in existence. Check for proofs if farm bill needs to be passed India wide.
  • Increase government built cold storage to reduce monopoly by private entities.

How to build a career in agriculture in India?

  • Structuring of the farms
  • Designing in agriculture layout
  • Research and development
  • Surveyor
  • Providing consultancy services to various government and private organizations

What is the best agricultural business in India?

There are three basic things you can do with land:

  • If you want to wait for price appreciation, then it really depends on the location, the fertility of the land, future developments etc.
  • Safeguarding the property will also be a challenge. You will need to construct a boundary around your land, and regular physical checks are also advised.
  • If you are looking to rent it out,

Where did agriculture start?

Agriculture was developed at least 10,000 years ago, and it has undergone significant developments since the time of the earliest cultivation. Independent development of agriculture occurred in northern and southern China, Africa’s Sahel, New Guinea and several regions of the Americas.

When was agriculture start in India?

Agriculture was well established throughout most of the subcontinent by 6000–5000 bp. During the 5th millennium bp, in the alluvial plains of the Indus River in Pakistan, the cities of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa experienced an apparent explosion of an organized, sophisticated urban culture.

When did the agriculture begin?

Taking root around 12,000 years ago, agriculture triggered such a change in society and the way in which people lived that its development has been dubbed the “Neolithic Revolution.” Traditional hunter-gatherer lifestyles, followed by humans since their evolution, were swept aside in favor of permanent settlements and …

Which is the first country in agriculture?

1. China. China has 7% of the arable land and with that, they feed 22% of the world’s population.

How did agriculture begin in India?

Indian agriculture began by 9000 BCE on north-west India with the early cultivation of plants, and domestication of crops and animals. Indian subcontinent agriculture was the largest producer of wheat and grain. They settled life soon followed with implements and techniques being developed for agriculture.

Which state has most agriculture in India?

Uttar PradeshSubscribeCrop CategoryState RanksTotal ProductionFood grains (million tonnes)1. Uttar Pradesh43.22. Punjab26.93. Madhya Pradesh16.0All India218.112 more rows•Aug 20, 2012

Who first started agriculture?

Egyptians were among the first peoples to practice agriculture on a large scale, starting in the pre-dynastic period from the end of the Paleolithic into the Neolithic, between around 10,000 BC and 4000 BC. This was made possible with the development of basin irrigation.

What is agricultural development India?

The agricultural sector is a central pillar of the Indian economy, employing 60 percent of the nation’s workforce and contributing to about 17 percent of its GDP. Productivity remains a challenge, however, and poverty and malnutrition in rural areas remain high.

Who is the father of agriculture?

Norman Ernest Borlaug (25 March 1914 – 12 September 2009) was an American agricultural scientist, and humanitarian. He is considered by some to be the “father of modern agriculture” and the father of the green revolution.

Which production was first in India?

World’s ranking in agricultural productionsProductionRank 1Rank 2BananasIndiaChinaJuteIndiaBangladeshMangoIndiaChinaMilkIndiaUSA9 more rows

Who were the first farmers?

Around 4,000 years ago, people in Britain started living in a new way. Instead of spending all their time hunting and gathering, they began to set up farms. The early farmers chopped down trees so they could grow crops and vegetables. They kept cattle, sheep and pigs.

What is the rank of India in agriculture?

India ranks second worldwide in farm outputs. As per 2018, agriculture employed more than 50% of the Indian work force and contributed 17–18% to country’s GDP.

What were the first crops in South Asia?

Research indicates two early stages of agricultural development in South Asia. In the earlier stage, dating roughly from 9500 to 7500 bp, agriculture was being established in parts of Pakistan, in the northwesternmost part of the subcontinent. At the ancient site of Mehrgarh, where the earliest evidence has been found, barley was the dominant crop and was apparently supplemented with some wheat. The barley found there is the well-developed domesticate, six-row barley. A small amount of wild barley and two-row domesticated barley have also been recovered, although archaeologists do not think that barley was independently domesticated in this region. Four types of wheat—einkorn, emmer, durum, and bread wheat—have also been found. All had diffused from Southwest Asia, so it is thought that barley probably did so as well. However, the early barley and wheat in Mehrgarh have predominantly small spherical grains, indicating that varieties adapted to local conditions were developed there. No evidence of irrigation has been found. Goats and sheep were also raised at Mehrgarh at this time.

What were the main crops of the Harappan civilization?

Harappan society was remarkably homogeneous, thoroughly individual and independent, and a technological peer of the early civilizations of China and Egypt. Barley and wheat, supplemented by dates, sesame ( Sesamum indicum ), field peas, and lentils, were the primary crops. Goats, sheep, fowl, humped and humpless breeds of Indian cattle ( Bos …

How is grain harvested?

Grain is harvested with a sickle, bound in bundles, and threshed by bullocks treading on it or by hand pounding. To separate the grain from the chaff, it may be sieved with sieves made of stalks of grass or of bamboo, or it may be winnowed by pouring by hand at a height from a supa (winnowing scoop).

Where was barley found?

At the ancient site of Mehrgarh, where the earliest evidence has been found, barley was the dominant crop and was apparently supplemented with some wheat. The barley found there is the well-developed domesticate, six-row barley.

Where were millets cultivated?

Millets were cultivated in the wheat areas and in the drier districts of Gujarat and Khandesh as well. Cotton, sugarcane, indigo ( Indigofera and Isatis species), and opium ( Papaver somniferum) were major cash crops. Cultivation of tobacco, introduced by the Portuguese, spread rapidly.

Where did rice originate?

Rice predominated in the eastern states, on the southwest coast, and in Kashmir. Aside from its original home in Gujarat, it had spread also to the Punjab and Sindh with the aid of irrigation. Wheat grew throughout its “natural” region in north and central India.

When did the Upanishads start cultivating tools?

But no technological revolution in cultivating tools or techniques had occurred since roughly the time of the Upanishads ( c. 2600–2300 bp ). The empire was broadly divided into rice zones and wheat and millet zones. Rice predominated in the eastern states, on the southwest coast, and in Kashmir.

What was the agricultural growth of India in the twentieth century?

India‟s agricultural growth in the twentieth century has been low compared to that in other developing countries. However, there have been some important developments in the agricultural sector in this period. On the eve of independence, India had to face the serious problem of food shortage. The partition had given a severe blow to the food grain production. Food grains had to be imported from outside as agricultural production did not suffice with the minimum requirements of the population. Therefore, agricultural development was given top most priority to attain self sufficiency in food grains so as to feed the teeming millions. As was aptly stated by Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru after Independence “everything else can wait but not agriculture”, and this perspective was reflected in several public policies and investment decisions particularly with regard to irrigation, fertilizers, production, land reforms and community development.

What was the change in Indian agriculture?

Another noteworthy change in Indian Agriculture was its commercialization that spread between 1850 and1947. Commercialization of agriculture implies production of crops for sale rather than for family consumption. At every stage of the economic history of the nation, a part of the agricultural output is produced for the market. Then, what distinguished commercial agriculture from normal sales of marketable surplus? It was a deliberate policy worked up under pressure from British industries. By the middle of the nineteenth century, Industrial Revolution had been completed in England. There was a tremendous demand for raw materials, especially cotton, jute, sugarcane, groundnuts, for the British

What did the Indus Valley civilization do?

Indus Valley civilization relied on the considerable technology achievements of the pre-Harappan culture, including the plough. The farmers of the Indus Valley grew peas, sesame and dates. Rice was also cultivated in the Indus Valley Civilization. The method of agriculture which Indus civilization people practiced was rainfall harvesting. Due to discovery it came into the light that Indus civilization people had a series of massive reservoirs to meet the city‟s needs during the dry season. The main

How long did the British rule India?

The establishment of the British rule itself was a slow and lengthy process, extending over more than a hundred years. The British conquest which started in 1757 with the Battle of Plassey was completed only by 1858. During this period England was passing through the period of changes in the techniques of production which revolutionized manufacturing. The British conquest led to the disintegration of

How does agriculture contribute to India’s economy?

The domestication of plants and animals are reported in the subcontinent by 9000 BC. The farm sector is contributing greatly to the productivity and stability of the country’s economy due to which it has been believed that agricultural prosperity is fundamental to national prosperity. The conception of agriculture, however, has been greatly changed during the past fifty years due to the progress in the technique of agriculture system. The question of the history of agriculture is of extreme interest for the insight that it gives us into human cultural processes, into the location of centers of early economic and intellectual advance, and the diffusion of influences as measured by the spread of useful plants. The object of the study is to understand the past life of humanity and also to understand the condition of farmer and agriculture of present life of the times of which we ourselves are a part.

Is India rich in genetic resources?

India as a whole like most of the developing world is rich in Indigenous genetic resources. The author observed that, the agriculture system got improved by the adaptation of new technology but adequate recognition of rights of farming community is lacking. Most of the rural populations are denied of their rights to land or property, water, labor and access to markets, education, information and new technologies. Traditional plant varieties and wild species are disappearing irreversibly due to the flaw of monoculture farming and use of new technologies like biotechnology and the process has resulted in the disappearance of farming know-how.

When did agriculture begin in India?

Manuring The excavation of the Mehrgarh period sites that is around 8000-6000 BC throws some startling facts about Indian agriculture that began as early as 9000 BC. The domestication of plants and animals are reported in the subcontinent by 9000 BC. Wheat, barley and jujube were among crops, …

When was irrigation first used in India?

Sophisticated irrigation and water storage systems were developed by the Indus Valley Civilization, including artificial reservoirs at Girnar dated to 3000 BC, and an early canal irrigation system in 2600 BC.

What did the Indus civilization do?

Indus civilization people practiced rainfall harvesting. At a recently discovered Indus civilization site in western India, archaeologists discovered a series of massive reservoirs, hewn from solid rock and designed to collect rainfall, that would have been capable of meeting the city’s needs during the dry season.

What were the technological achievements of the Indus Valley civilization?

Indus Valley civilization relied on the considerable technological achievements of the pre-Harappan culture, including the plough. The farmers of the Indus Valley grew peas, sesame, and dates. Rice was cultivated in the Indus Valley Civilization. Indus civilization people practiced rainfall harvesting.

What was the agriculture of the Mauryan Empire?

Ancient Indian Agriculture in Mauryan Empire. The Mauryan Empire (322–185 BCE) categorized soils and made meteorological observations for the agricultural use. Other Mauryan facilitation included construction and maintenance of dams and provision of horse-drawn chariots—that was quicker than traditional bullock carts.

What was the agrarian system in the Chola Empire?

The agrarian society in South India during the Chola Empire (875-1279) reveals that collective holding of land slowly gave way to individual plots, each with their own irrigation system during Chola rule.

What was the trade in ancient India?

Agriculture Trade in Ancient India. Foreign crops were introduced to India and Indian products soon reached the world via existing trading networks. Spice trade involving spices such as cinnamon and black peppergained momentum and India started shippingthem to the Mediterranean.

How much food grain was produced in India in 1960?

With food grain production of 69.3 million tonnes in the fiscal year 1960-61 to 264.35 tonnes in the fiscal year 2013-14, Indian agriculture has come a long way. The growing population became a key driver for agricultural products and with time, rising urban and rural incomes also gave a boost to attractive opportunities in …

What is the agriculture export policy?

The Agriculture Export Policy was framed with a focus on agriculture export-oriented production, export promotion, better farmer realization, and synchronization within policies and programs of the Government of India. It lifted all restrictions on organic and processed food, to help the government’s efforts to double farmers’ income by 2022.

How much is the procurement policy in India?

In September 2018, the Government of India announced a Rs 15,053 crore procurement policy, under which states can decide the compensation scheme and can also partner with private agencies to ensure fair prices for farmers in the country

Where did agriculture originate?

By 8000 BC, farming was entrenched on the banks of the Nile. About this time, agriculture was developed independently in the Far East, probably in China, with rice rather than wheat as the primary crop. Maize was domesticated from the wild grass teosinte in southern Mexico by 6700 BC.

How long ago did agriculture start?

Wild grains were collected and eaten from at least 105,000 years ago.

What were the first foods that were domesticated in the New World?

The potato (8000 BC), tomato, pepper (4000 BC), squash (8000 BC) and several varieties of bean (8000 BC onwards) were domesticated in the New World. Agriculture was independently developed on the island of New Guinea.

What are the social issues that modern agriculture has raised?

Modern agriculture has raised social, political, and environmental issues including overpopulation, water pollution, biofuels, genetically modified organisms, tariffs and farm subsidies. In response, organic farming developed in the twentieth century as an alternative to the use of synthetic pesticides.

How has agriculture changed since 1900?

Since 1900, agriculture in the developed nations, and to a lesser extent in the developing world, has seen large rises in productivity as human labour has been replaced by mechanization, and assisted by synthe tic fertilizers, pesticides, and selective breeding.

What were the crops that were introduced in the Middle Ages?

In the Middle Ages, both in the Islamic world and in Europe, agriculture was transformed with improved techniques and the diffusion of crop plants, including the introduction of sugar, rice, cotton and fruit trees such as the orange to Europe by way of Al-Andalus.

Why was clover important to agriculture?

The use of clover was especially important as the legume roots replenished soil nitrates. The mechanisation and rationalisation of agriculture was another important factor.

Where did farming originate?

The idea that farming began in a single population came from initial archaeological discoveries in one part of the Mideast — the Southern Levant , says Melinda Zeder, an archaeologist at the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, who wasn’t involved in the study.

Where was the first farm in the world?

The Zagros Mountain range, which lies at the border between Iran and Iraq, was home to some of the world’s earliest farmers. The Zagros Mountain range, which lies at the border between Iran and Iraq, was home to some of the world’s earliest farmers. Sometime around 12,000 years ago, our hunter-gatherer ancestors began trying their hand at farming.

Where did the Stone Age farmers come from?

Just last month, he published a study that found that late Stone Age farmers from the Turkey region had migrated north into Europe and introduced farming there. So understandably, he had expected to be able to trace European agriculture all the way back to the eastern Fertile Crescent. But that’s not what the DNA said.

When did hunter-gatherers start farming?

Sometime around 12,000 years ago, our hunter-gatherer ancestors began trying their hand at farming. First, they grew wild varieties of crops like peas, lentils and barley and herded wild animals like goats and wild oxen. Centuries later, they switched to farming full time, breeding both animals and plants, creating new varieties and breeds.

Did farming start in the fertile crescent?

In other words, farming was long believed to have been started by one group of ancestral humans. But a new study suggests something different — that multiple groups of people in the Fertile Crescent started agriculture, and these groups were genetically distinct from one another.



The history of agriculture in India dates back to the Indus Valley Civilization. India ranks second worldwide in farm outputs. As per 2018, agriculture employed more than 50% of the Indian work force and contributed 17–18% to country’s GDP.
In 2016, agriculture and allied sectors like animal husbandry, forestry and fisheri…

Definition of farmer

The Indian government National Policy for Farmers. Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. pp 4. Accessed on 22 March 2021.</ref>
Indian farmers are people who grow crops. Various government estimates (Census, Agricultural Census, National Sample Survey assessments, and Periodic Labour Force Surveys) give a different number of farmers in the country ranging from 37 million to 118 million as per the different defin…


As per the 2014 FAO world agriculture statistics India is the world’s largest producer of many fresh fruits like banana, mango, guava, papaya, lemon and vegetables like chickpea, okra and milk, major spices like chili pepper, ginger, fibrous crops such as jute, staples such as millets and castor oil seed. India is the second largest producer of wheat and rice, the world’s major food staples.


Vedic literature provides some of the earliest written record of agriculture in India. Rigveda hymns, for example, describes ploughing, fallowing, irrigation, fruit and vegetable cultivation. Other historical evidence suggests rice and cotton were cultivated in the Indus Valley, and ploughing patterns from the Bronze Age have been excavated at Kalibangan in Rajasthan. Bhumivargaha, an Indian Sans…


Indian irrigation infrastructure includes a network of major and minor canals from rivers, groundwater well-based systems, tanks, and other rainwater harvesting projects for agricultural activities. Of these, the groundwater system is the largest. Of the 160 million hectares of cultivated land in India, about 39 million hectare can be irrigated by groundwater wells and an additional 22 million hectares by irrigation canals. In 2010, only about 35% of agricultural land in …


As of 2011 , India had a large and diverse agricultural sector, accounting, on average, for about 16% of GDP and 10% of export earnings. India’s arable land area of 159.7 million hectares (394.6 million acres) is the second largest in the world, after the United States. Its gross irrigated crop area of 82.6 million hectares (215.6 million acres) is the largest in the world. India is among the top three global producers of many crops, including wheat, rice, pulses, cotton, peanuts, fruits an…

Agriculture based cooperatives

India has seen a huge growth in cooperative societies, mainly in the farming sector, since 1947 when the country gained independence from Britain. The country has networks of cooperatives at the local, regional, state and national levels that assist in agricultural marketing. The commodities that are mostly handled are food grains, jute, cotton, sugar, milk, fruit and nuts Support by the …


“Slow agricultural growth is a concern for policymakers as some two-thirds of India’s people depend on rural employment for a living. Current agricultural practices are neither economically nor environmentally sustainable and India’s yields for many agricultural commodities are low. Poorly maintained irrigation systems and almost universal lack of good extension services are among the f…

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