where is intensive subsistence agriculture practiced



Intensive subsistence agriculture, the subject of this review, is mainly practiced in the developing countries of Africa, Latin America, Central and, East Europe and South East Asia (Devendra and Thomas 2002; Mathijs and Noev 2004; World Bank 2005).

Intensive subsistence farming is prevalent in the thickly populated areas of the monsoon regions of south, southwest, and southeast Asia.


What is meant by intensive subsistence agriculture?

 · For example, wheat, soybeans, and barley are majorly grown intensively in subsistence farms of northern parts of china, japan, and Korea and also parts of India like Punjab. In areas where rainfall is not adequate, food crops like millet and gorghum are grown. Maize is also often included in the crop rotation at one time of the year.

What are the 3 major types of subsistence agriculture?

Intensive subsistence agriculture is best developed and practi­cally confined to the monsoon lands of Asia. It is carried on mainly in China, Japan, India, Bangladesh, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, Laos, Cambodia and the is­lands of Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia.

What are examples of subsistence farming?

Intensive subsistence farming is best developed in the monsoon lands of Asia. This type of agriculture can be found in China, Japan, Korea, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, in a big part of continental South-East Asia, and some parts of insular South-East Asia as well.

Why is subsistence farming important?

 · With intensive subsistence farming, however, farmers are able to produce even more food. This allows them to produce enough food for family consumption while still having enough product for sale or exchange. Intensive farming is more common in high populous societies where the demand for food is higher.


Where is intensive subsistence agriculture Practised?

Intensive subsistence agriculture is prevalent in the thickly populated areas of the monsoon regions of south, southeast and east Asia.

Where is intensive subsistence agriculture practiced in India?

Intensive subsistence farming is practised in Punjab,some parts of Rajasthan ,Uttar Pradesh, Madhaya Pradesh in India. It is a type of farming different from subsistence as more chemical fertilizers and modern means of agriculture are practised intensively by a individual farmer working on a small field.

Where is intensive subsistence agriculture practiced in the world what are its two types?

1 Answer. Intensive subsistence farming is done in many parts of China, Japan, India etc. (i) Intensive subsistence agriculture dominated by wet paddy cultivation. (i) It is characterised by dominance of the rice crop.

Why is intensive subsistence farming Practised?

Intensive subsistence farming Climate with large number of days with sunshine and fertile soils, permits growing of more than one crop annually on the same plot. Farmers use their small land holdings to produce enough for their local consumption, while remaining produce is used for exchange against other goods.

What is intensive subsistence farming in India?

Intensive Subsistence Farming This type of farming is practised in areas of high population pressure on land. It is labour- intensive farming, where high doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for obtaining higher production.

What are the two types of subsistence agriculture practiced in different countries of the world describe the main features of these types?

Describe the main features of these types. (i) Primitive Subsistence agriculture: Also known as shifting agriculture, slash and burn….Growing of flowers is called:Truck farming.Factory farming.Mixed farming.Floriculture.

What are the two types of intensive subsistence agriculture class 12?

There are mainly two types of Intensive subsistence Agriculture and they are Intensive subsistence agriculture dominated by wet paddy cultivation and Intensive subsidence agriculture dominated by crops other than paddy.

In which one of the following countries is intensive subsistence agriculture not predominantly practiced?

The correct answer is Canada.


What is intensive subsistence farming?

Intensive subsistence farming is the type of farming where the farmer cultivates a small plot of land using simple tools and more labor. These farmers use their land to produce enough food for their local consumption and the exchange of goods as well. One can use intensive subsistence farming in a lot of different ways.

How do farmers use subsistence farming?

One can use intensive subsistence farming in a lot of different ways. Farmers usually do it on small pieces of land to produce enough food for their family or local consumption. There are also some who sell the rest of their crops and products to the local groceries. Also, there are farmers who want to grow organic food for personal use.

What is intensive farming?

As I mentioned earlier, intensive farming is the kind of farming in which farmers grow their crops, fruits, and vegetables on a small piece of land using simple tools. These farmers usually grow food for personal use, or they sell it to local groceries.

Why do farmers use hand labor?

The intensive subsistence farmers don’t use much technology in their farming nor much machinery which is why much hand labor is entailed. These farmers usually use traditional techniques and simple tools to produce the best products possible.

Why do farmers try to make as much as possible with their crops?

Due to the very limited space of usable land for agriculture, farmers try to make as much as possible with their crops. The farming is so intensive that they sometimes practice double- or treble-cropping. This means to grow several crops on the same land during the course of a year.

Why is farming in wet lowland so intensive?

Farming in wet lowland has to be very intensive to support a dense population. Many of those regions of intensive subsistence farming have a highly developed form of society such as China and India that have a continuous history of civilization.

What do farmers do with their animals?

Some farmers that have animals on their farms do plowing with the aid of buffaloes or horses. They rake fields by hand and plant their crops in precise rows by the family that runs the farm. Harvesting is usually done with sickles and threshing by hand. Simple tools might also be of use but are not a must.

Why do farmers use their land for subsistence farming?

This allows farmers to make the most of each harvest. In traditional subsistence farming, farmers use their land to produce enough food to feed their families. With intensive subsistence farming, however, farmers are able to produce even more food. This allows them to produce enough food for family consumption while still having enough product …

Why is intensive farming so common?

One such method is the use of commercially produced fertilizer to ensure that crops get all the nutrients they need for a bountiful yield .

Where is intensive subsistence farming practiced?

Intensive subsistence agriculture is practiced in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Pakistan, Vietnam, Egypt, Sudan, etc. (3).

What is intensive subsistence agriculture?

Intensive subsistence agriculture is defined as a system of subsistence agriculture in those regions of the world where high population density, rapid population growth, easy access to labor, and limited agricultural land.

What type of farming is mainly developed in rural environments where farming is done by old and ancient methods?

This type of farming method is mainly developed in rural environments where farming is done by old and ancient methods. So both uneducated and experienced can do intensive subsistence agriculture.

How many categories are there in agriculture?

The agricultural system is divided into 9 categories based on market size, crop production, crop demand, and supply. Intensive subsistence agriculture is one of the nine types. Such types of farming systems are mainly developed in rural environments.

Why is the price of agricultural products higher?

Here the overall production cost of agricultural products is higher. Prices of agricultural products vary due to overproduction or low yield. In particular, farmers are economically disadvantaged due to overproduction. They do not get the proper price for the crop.

What is the purpose of farming?

The farmer provides food for himself and his family members by this agricultural method. Such farming methods have been developed in different natural and socio-economic environments only to meet the demand for food. Some of the interesting features of this agriculture and its economic importance are discussed below (1) & (2).

What are the instruments used in agriculture?

are not used in this farming method. In this case simple and old type’s instruments such as sickle, spade, plow, ladder, etc. are used. This farming is dominated by animals and muscle power. As a result of the slow spread of agricultural technology, there is a tendency towards modernization in the agricultural system. The overall profit in this agriculture is small.

Where is mixed crop farming?

Mixed crop and livestock farming is the most common form of commercial agriculture in the United States west of the Appalachians and east of 98°west longitude and in much of Europe from France to Russia.

What is ranching in agriculture?

Ranching is the commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area, practiced in more developed countries, where the vegetation is too sparse and the soil too poor to support crops.

What is commercial grain farming?

Commercial grain agriculture is distinguished from mixed crop and livestock farming because crops on a grain farm are grown primarily for consumption by humans rather than by livestock.

What are the main meat animals raised on ranches?

Fig. 10-12: Cattle, sheep, and goats are the main meat animals raised on ranches.

Where did Von Thünen’s model of spatial arrangement of crops come from?

Von Thünen based his general model of the spatial arrangement of different crops on his experiences as owner of a large estate in northern Germany during the early nineteenth century.

Which country produces 90% of the world’s rice?

Fig. 10-6: Asian farmers grow over 90% of the world’s rice. India and China alone account for over half of world rice production.

Which country produces the most wheat?

Fig. 10-10: China is the world’s leading wheat producer, but the U.S. and Canada account for about half of world wheat exports.

What is subsistence agriculture?

Subsistence agriculture is a form of agriculture in which nearly all the crops or livestock are raised to sustain the farm family (Clifton 1970). Although good weather oc- casionally allows the farmers to produce surplus, rarely do the farmers have enough surplus to sell for cash or store for later use.

What is subsistence farming?

Subsistence farming is a form of production in which nearly all crops or livestock are raised to sustain the farm family, and rarely pro- ducing surpluses to sell for cash or store for later use. There are two major types of subsistence agriculture: primitive and intensive.

Why are low yields and high frequency of crop failure a challenge?

The challenge of low yields and high frequency of crop failure is aggravated by the ever growing demand for food due to increasing population. International Food Policy Re- search Institute (IFPRI), for example, projects that by 2020, food needs in developing countries will increase by 600 million tons which is equal to one- third of the current world food production (IFPRI 2001). The low yields and high crop failure is due to among other factors unreliable rainfall, pests and diseases, use of rudimentary farming technologies and lack of financial resource to engage skilled labour and extension services, to purchase modern farming implements, technologies and external inputs. Since subsistence agriculture is largely rainfed, unreliable rainfall, changing and unpredictable weather patterns oc- casioned by global warming greatly contributes to low yields and high crop failure in this type of farming system (Fig. 2). Much of Africa, for example, is subject to large rainfall variability of plus or minus 35%, implying poorly predictable droughts and floods (Carloni 2001). In addition, most developing countries have a lower water storage capa- city than other regions (IFAD 1992). For instance, Ethiopia stores only 43 cubic meters per capita, compared to 6,150 in North America (Carloni 2001; Dixon et al. 2001a). Continuous cropping with minimal or no application of external inputs to mitigate against loss of soil fertility and build – up of diseases and pests impacts heavily on crop yields and land productivity (Waceke et al. 2004; FAO 2005c; Arim et al. 2006). This is aggravated by monocrop- ping, a common practice especially in staple food subsis- tence production systems. The yield losses due to diseases can be as high as 100% depending on the crop, the patho- gen/pest involved and prevailing abiotic factors (Waceke et al. 2004; Arim et al. 2006). Lack of finances by subsistence farmers limits their ac- cess to agricultural inputs such as fertilizers, pesticides and improved seeds that would serve to increase productivity of their farms and crop yields. It also limits access to exten- sion services especially in countries where such services are not subsidized by the government. In addition, the inability to hire skilled or additional labor and to purchase farm implements that could increase the productivity of their farms and increase land under cultivation is also attributed to lack of financial resource (Key et al. 2000; IFAD 2001). The declining financial support and investment in agri- culture by the various governments in developing countries which rely heavily on external aid makes the situation even worse for the subsistence farmer. Agricultural external aid from bilateral and multi-lateral financial institutions and donors has sharply dropped since 1990 and according to IFAD (2001), real net aid disbursement to developing coun- tries has fallen from 2.7% of the GDP in 1992 to 1.4 of their GDP by 1998.

How are nutrients removed from the soil?

Plant nutrients are removed from the soil in the form of harvested crops, through soil erosion, removal of crop residues for use as fuel or livestock feed, and leaching . Soil fertility decline has been rated as the major cause of diminishing productivity in subsistence agri- culture (Bationo et al. 1998; Nandwa 2003).

What are the two main forms of subsistence agriculture?

There are two major forms of subsistence agriculture, namely primitive and intensive subsistence agriculture.

Is pastoral nomadic agriculture sustainable?

This system is only sustainable where land is abundant. Pastoral nomadic agriculture is a type of agriculture where pastoralist communities move together with their livestock in search of pasture and water and do not have permanent shelter (Dixon et al. 2001a).

Can technology be used in primitive farming?

Given that modern technology is not used in primitive subsistence farming, the area of land that a farmer can culti- vate each season is limited by available tools, crop type, manpower, the quality of the soil and the climatic condi- tions (Dixon et al. 2001b).

What Is Intensive Agriculture?

Intensive agriculture is a method of farming that uses large amounts of labor and investment to increase the yield of the land. In an industrialized society this typically means the use of pesticides, fertilizers, and other chemicals that boost yield, and the acquisition and use of machinery to aid planting, chemical application, and picking.

What Are the Characteristics of Intensive Agriculture?

Pasture intensification is the increase in value and production that occurs due to inputs such as money, labor, and pesticides, specifically in the pastures on which farmed animals graze.

Intensive Agriculture Examples

Most of the farmed animals in the United States live a significant portion of their lives on industrial factory farms that use a variety of intensive methods to produce more meat, dairy, or eggs for less money. One such method is keeping the animals enclosed in small spaces and delivering their food to them.

Intensive Versus Extensive Agriculture

Intensive farming focuses on investing a lot of resources and labor into small tracts of land in order to increase yield. Extensive agriculture, on the other hand, employs larger tracts of land and lower quantities of labor and resources.

Why Is Intensive Agriculture Bad?

Billions of animals in the United States suffer on factory farms that employ intensive methods to increase profitability. Often they are confined in such small spaces that they can barely move. Standard procedures include debeaking, castration, tail docking, and dehorning.


The intensification of farming has played an important role in the history of agriculture. It allowed for farmers to feed growing communities around the world. However, intensive agriculture as we know it today is no longer sustainable or necessary.

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