Across central Poland a vast region of plains extends – the so called Polish Plain, used mainly for agriculture. To the south of central lowlands the terrain rises slowly and is again more hilly and diverse, dominated by highlands.
What are the characteristics of Polish farming?
Polish farms are small, inefficient, lack capital, and have surplus labor. The main products are potatoes, fruits, vegetables, wheat, poultry, eggs, pork, beef, milk, and cheese. The average farm sells most of its products and buys about a fourth of the food consumed by the family. Land Tenure and Property.
What are the economic features of Poland?
Food and Economy 1 Food in Daily Life. The mainstays of the Polish diet are meat, bread, and potatoes. … 2 Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. Namedays and weddings center on individuals. … 3 Basic Economy. … 4 Land Tenure and Property. … 5 Commercial Activities. … 6 Major Industries. … 7 Trade. … 8 Division of Labor. …
What are the main agricultural resources in Poland?
Agricultural Resources. The sandy soils of the central plains are most suitable for rye, the richer soil in the south favors wheat and barley, and the poorer soil of the north is used for oats. All parts of Poland favor potato cultivation; sugar beets, the most important industrial crop, grow mainly in the west and southeast.
What is the natural landscape of Poland?
Except for its southern mountainous regions, the country consists almost entirely of lowlands within the North European Plain. The natural landscape of Poland can be divided broadly into three relief groups: the lowlands, the highlands, and the mountains.
Which physical characteristics of Poland encourage agriculture which physical characteristics promote industry?
Which physical characteristics of Poland encourage agriculture? Trees covered the Northern European Plain, where Poland sits, and they cut the trees down to have the land used as farmland.
Why are the rivers of Europe an important aspect of its geography?
Why are the rivers of Europe an important aspect of its geography? They encourage travel, trade, make the movement of people, goods, and ideas easier. It also helps agriculture.
How does the lack of certain natural resources limit industrial growth in Ukraine?
How does the lack of certain natural resources limit industrial growth in Ukraine? Ukraine doesn’t have many natural resources which would benefit industrial growth. For example, they must import large amounts of natural gasses and oil. This is expensive and it doesn’t allow their industries to grow.
What are the effects of glaciation on Northern Europe?
Glaciers formed fjords mountains and lakes for northern europe. fjords are an important method of water transportation. geysers provide hot water for northern europe. … The last ice age provided many glaciers that carved out lakes and fjords in addition to creating more rugged mountains for northern europe.
On which feature does the majority of European agriculture take place?
The majority of the Western European agriculture takes place on the Great European Plain. The climate of Western Europe is a predominantly a marine climate. The Aegean Sea is an arm of the Mediterranean between Greece and Turkey.
What geographic area in Europe has rich fertile farmland and is a center of industry?
What geographic area in Europe has rich fertile farmland and is a center of industry? The north European plain.
What agriculture does Ukraine export?
Ukraine was the world’s sixth-largest exporter of wheat in 2021 with a 10% share of the market, shipping 20 million tons of wheat and meslin (a mixture of wheat and rye), according to the United Nations, and the country is also one of the world’s top exporters of barley and sunflower seeds.
What agricultural products does Ukraine export?
Ukraine has six primary products with over a billion dollars in export sales: corn ($5.8 billion), sunflower seed ($5.7 billion), wheat ($5.1 billion), rapeseed ($1.7 billion), barley ($1.3 billion) and sunflower meal ($1.2 billion).
How does the Russia Ukraine conflict influence Africa’s agricultural supplies?
Similarly, Ukraine exported US$2.9 billion worth of agricultural products to the African continent in 2020. About 48% of this was wheat, 31% maize, and the rest included sunflower oil, barley, and soybeans. Russia and Ukraine are substantial players in the global commodities market.
What physical features would draw farmers to settle in the northern European plain?
The Northern European plain attracted farms because of the fertile soil, flat land, and numerous nearby rivers.
What makes the northern European plain good land for agriculture?
It has fertile soil and water resources from rivers. What makes the Northern European Plain good land for agriculture? How have the rivers in Europe’s heartland contributed to the regions development? Europe’s waterways provide a source of transportation, trade, recreational activities, and water power.
How does Northern Europe’s location affect the climate and vegetation?
How does Northern Europe’s location affect its climate and vegetation? Northern europe’s high lattitude gives it cold climates and minimizes vegetation there. However, its location by the Gulf stream warms the Atlantic Coast some and allows more vegetation, such as coniferous forests, to grow there.
What are the soils of Poland?
Soils in Poland, as elsewhere, are largely the product of climatic conditions and their associated vegetation cover. At the end of the Ice Age, temperatures increased while glaciers retreated and created a tundra-like environment. In early soils, which contained little organic material, coniferous forests gradually were established. The natural decay of trees and their trunks, roots, and leaves, combined with natural and human-induced fires, created gray and brown soils. Deciduous forests eventually developed on brown soils and on alluvial soils near riverbeds.
What are the environmental concerns of Poland?
Rapid industrial development during the twentieth century has generated visible scars on the natural environment. Industrialization accelerated the shift from a dominantly rural to a predominantly urban society. Cities expanded rapidly in terms of both their spatial distribution and population growth. These factors contributed to an increase in air, ground, and water pollution.
Where does Poland get its water?
Despite the estimated 10,000 lakes that exist in Poland, the main source of fresh water for consumption and irrigation is from watersheds of the Vistula and Odra river systems. The Vistula, in particular, is the backbone of Poland. Its headwaters are in the Carpathian Mountains, just north of the border with Slovakia and the Czech Republic. From there, it crisscrosses the country and connects most vital urban and industrial centers. First, it reaches Cracow-Katowice, Poland’s leading industrial region, and then continues north toward the capital city. The Vistula joins the Bug River and its tributaries in the vicinity of Warsaw, where it expands in volume. It is here that the true flatlands begin, including the broad floodplain of the Vistula. From Warsaw to Gdansk, the river continues through several larger cities—#N#first flowing westward and then sharply turning northward—until it finally flows into the Baltic Sea.
Why is vegetation important to the environment?
Vegetation plays a significant role in the natural environment because it is the product of climate. When Russian scientist Wladimir (Vladimir) Koppen designed his widely applied climate classification system, he used vegetation as the primary indicator of variations in climatic zones. An area predominantly covered with grasses, for example, represented one type of climate.
What are the uplands of Poland?
The ancient rocks of the Świętokrzyskie (“Holy Cross”) Mountains, which reach a maximum elevation of 2,008 feet (612 metres), form a second upthrust. Between these two regions lies the Nida River basin, with an average height of 650 to 1,000 feet (198 to 305 metres). East of the Świętokrzyskie Mountains, the uplands are cut by the valley of the Vistula, beyond which lie the Lublin ( Lubelska) Uplands. In the south occur patches of loess on which fertile brown- and black-earth soils have developed.
How did Poland’s relief form?
Poland’s relief was formed by the actions of Ice Age glaciers, which advanced and receded over the northern part of the country several times during the Pleistocene Epoch (from about 2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago).
What continent is Poland on?
Poland lies at the physical centre of the European continent, approximately between latitudes 49° and 55° N and longitudes 14° and 24° E. Irregularly circular in shape, it is bordered to the north by the Baltic Sea, to the northeast by Russia and Lithuania, and to the east by Belarus and Ukraine. To the south the border follows the watershed of the Beskid (Beskidy), Carpathian (Karpaty), and Sudeten (Sudety) mountains, which separate Poland from Slovakia and the Czech Republic, while to the west the Neisse (Nysa Łużycka) and Oder (Odra) rivers define the border with Germany. Its current frontiers, stretching for 2,198 miles (3,538 km), were drawn in 1945. Except for its southern mountainous regions, the country consists almost entirely of lowlands within the North European Plain.
How long is Poland’s frontier?
Its current frontiers, stretching for 2,198 miles (3,538 km), were drawn in 1945. Except for its southern mountainous regions, the country consists almost entirely of lowlands within the North European Plain. physical features of Poland Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
What is the relief structure of the Baltic Sea?
The relief structure can be divided more specifically into a series of east-west–trending zones. To the north lie the swamps and dunes of the Baltic Sea coast; south of these is a belt of morainic terrain with thousands of lakes, the southern boundary of which marks the limit of the last ice sheet.
How was the Baltic coastline formed?
The scarcely indented Baltic coastline was formed by wave action after the retreat of the ice sheet and the raising of sea levels. The Pomeranian (Pomorska) Bay in the west and the Gulf of Gdańsk in the east are the two major inlets.
What are the three relief groups of Poland?
The natural landscape of Poland can be divided broadly into three relief groups: the lowlands, the highlands, and the mountains. The eastern extremes of Poland display characteristics common to eastern Europe, but the rest of the country is linked to western Europe by structure, climate, and the character of its vegetation.
What are the main elements of the climate of Poland?
The major elements involved are oceanic air masses from the west, cold polar air from Scandinavia or Russia, and warmer, subtropical air from the south. A series of barometric depressions moves eastward along …
How many species of plants are there in Poland?
The vegetation of Poland that has developed since the last Ice Age consists of some 2,250 species of seed plants, 630 mosses, 200 liverworts, 1,200 lichens, and 1,500 fungi. Holarctic elements (i.e., those pertaining to the temperate belt of the Northern Hemisphere) are dominant among the seed plants.
What are the animals that live in Poland?
Poland’s animal life belongs to the European–West Siberian zoogeographic province, itself part of the Palearctic subregion, and is closely linked with the vegetation cover. Among the vertebrate fauna are nearly 400 species, including many types of mammals and more than 200 native birds. Deer and wild pigs roam the woods; elk inhabit the coniferous forests of the northeast; and steppe rodents, such as the brindled gopher, live in the south. Wildcats live in the mountain woods, and the chamois and marmot are found at the highest levels. Brown bears live in the Carpathian Mountains. The European bison, or wisent, which once roamed widely across the continent but became extinct in the wild following World War I, once again roams the great Białowieża (Belarusian: Belovezhskaya) Forest in national parks on both sides of the Polish-Belarusian border, having been reintroduced by using zoo-bred animals.
What are some examples of tundra vegetation?
There are few endemic species; the Polish larch ( Larix polonica) and the Ojców birch ( Betula oycoviensis) are two examples. Some relics of tundra vegetation have been preserved in the peat bogs and mountains. More than one-fourth of the country is wooded, with the majority set aside as public property.
What is the vegetation of the mountains?
In the mountains the vegetation, like the climate, is determined by elevation. Fir and beech woods give way to the spruce of the upper woods, which in turn fade into subalpine, alpine, and snow-line vegetation.
Which country was the most polluted in the 20th century?
Rapid industrialization following World War II in Poland , as well as in neighbouring Czech Republic, Slovakia, and eastern Germany, severely polluted many areas of the country. By the late 20th century, the Polish Academy of Sciences had described Poland as one of the most polluted countries in the world.
Is Poland a homogeneous country?
As a consequence, the population of Poland became one of the most ethnically homogeneous in the world. In addition, minority ethnic identity was not cultivated publicly until after the collapse of communism in 1989. Virtually all of Poland’s people claim Polish nationality, with Polish as their native tongue.
What are the four major physical regions of Europe?
Europe can be divided into four major physical regions, running from north to south: Western Uplands, North European Plain, Central Uplands, and Alpine Mountains. Western Uplands.
Which region of Europe is the most densely populated?
The North European Plain remains the most dense ly populated region of Europe. Central Uplands. The Central Uplands extend east-west across central Europe and include western France and Belgium, southern Germany, the Czech Republic, and parts of northern Switzerland and Austria.
What does “grassland” mean?
Noun. system or order of a nation, state, or other political unit. grassland. Noun. ecosystem with large, flat areas of grasses. habitat loss. Noun. the reduction or destruction of an ecosystem, making it less able to support its native species. human geography.
What is the process of land being transformed by glaciers or ice sheets?
Glaciation is the process of land being transformed by glacier s or ice sheet s. As glaciers receded from the area, they left a number of distinct physical features, including abundant marsh lands, lake s, and fjord s. A fjord is a long and narrow inlet of the sea that is surrounded by high, rugged cliff s.
Why does Poland exist?
Poland exists because individuals voluntarily fought for a free and united Poland. History is one of the themes used to create a commonality and a feeling of pride. Poles consider themselves to be members of a community. Emergence of the Nation. No one knows when or where the ancestors of modern Poles originated.
What are the main imports of Poland?
Poland’s main imports are manufactured goods, chemicals, machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, food, and live animals. Division of Labor. In the cities, both men and women are employed outside the home. However, there is a male bias in employment. Proportionately, more women are unemployed than men.
What is the border between Poland and Russia?
On the north Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia, and Lithuania; on the east by Belarus and Ukraine; on the south by Slovakia and the Czech Republic; and on the west by Germany. Originally, the capital was Cracow (Kraków), but in 1611 it was moved to Warsaw (Warszawa), the current seat of government.
How many Poles live abroad?
Worldwide there are an additional 13 million Poles who live abroad. Due to Poland’s history of shifting borders and the changes over time in the ethnic policies pursued by both foreign and Polish governments, it is difficult to establish the exact size of ethnic groups.
What was the impact of the Polish independence in 1918?
Starting in 1918 with the regaining of Polish independence, the leveling influences of school, the military, mass media, urbanization, and mass migration of population have reduced the differences between regional dialects so that spoken and written language is nearly standardized. Symbolism.
What percentage of Poland’s unemployed are women?
Despite the fact that women make up less than 50 percent of the workforce, 55 percent of the unemployed are women. The Relative Status of Women and Men.
What happened to Poland in 1939?
After 1939, due to the Soviet and German genocides, changes in the country’s boundaries, migration, and the expulsion of ethnic peoples by the Communist government of Poland, the country became an almost monoethnic society.
What is the geography of Poland?
Poland ( Polish: Polska) is a country that extends across the North European Plain from the Sudetes and Carpathian Mountains in the south to the sandy beaches of the Baltic Sea in the north. Poland is the fifth-most populous country of the European Union and …
How big is Poland?
The average elevation is 173 meters, and only 3% of Polish territory, along the southern border, is elevated higher than 500 meters. The country’s highest peak is Mount Rysy, which rises 2,499 meters in the Tatra Range of the Carpathian Mountains, 95 kilometers south of Kraków. About 63 square kilometers along the Gulf of Gdańsk are below sea level. It has an exclusive economic zone of 30,533 square kilometres (11,789 sq mi) within the Baltic Sea.
What are the two major basins of Poland?
Within Poland the range includes two major basins, the Oświęcim and Sandomierz, which are rich in several minerals and natural gas . To the north of the central lowlands, the lake region includes primeval forests – one of the last remaining in Europe and much of Poland’s shrinking unspoiled natural habitat.
How many topographic zones are there in Poland?
Poland is traditionally divided into five topographic zones from north to south. The largest, the central lowlands or “Polish Plain” ( Polish: Niż Polski or Nizina Polska ), is narrow in the west, then expands to the north and south as it extends eastward.
What is the largest lake in Poland?
Other notable rivers within the administrative borders are Warta at 808.2 km (502.2 mi), and the Oder at 742 km (461 mi). Poland’s largest lake is Śniardwy with the surface area of 113.4 km 2 (43.8 sq mi), followed by Mamry with 104 km 2 (40 sq mi).
How long is the Polish coastline?
The Polish coastline was estimated at 770 km (478 mi) in length. Poland’s highest point is Mount Rysy, at 2,499 m (8,199 ft). Topographically, Poland is a diverse country; although most of the central terrain is flat, there is an abundance of lakes, rivers, hills, swamps, beaches, islands and forests elsewhere.
Where is the only desert in Poland?
The only desert located in Poland stretches over the Zagłębie Dąbrowskie (the Coal Fields of Dąbrowa) region. It is called the Błędów Desert, located in the Silesian Voivodeship in southern Poland. It has a total area of 32 square kilometres (12 sq mi). It is one of only five natural deserts in Europe.
Weather and Climate
Considering Poland’s northerly position (poleward of 50° north latitude), one might assume that the country’s climate would be similar to that of Canada’s Prairie Provinces. There, winters are harsh and summers short. Unlike interior Canada, however, Poland enjoys the luxury of the Atlantic Ocean’s strong influence on European climate. It manages to escape the reccurring bliz…
Vegetation plays a significant role in the natural environment because it is the product of climate. When Russian scientist Wladimir (Vladimir) Koppen designed his widely applied climate classificationsystem, he used vegetation as the primary indicator of variations in climatic zones. An area predominantly covered with grasses, for example, represented one type of climate. A tro…
Soils in Poland, as elsewhere, are largely the product of climatic conditions and their associated vegetation cover. At the end of the Ice Age, temperatures increased while glaciers retreated and created a tundra-like environment. In early soils, which contained little organic material, coniferous forests gradually were established. The natural decay of trees and their trunks, roots…
Despite the estimated 10,000 lakes that exist in Poland, the main source of fresh water for consumption and irrigation is from watersheds of the Vistula and Odra river systems. The Vistula, in particular, is the backbone of Poland. Its headwaters are in the Carpathian Mountains, just north of the border with Slovakia and the Czech Republic. From th…
Poland shares many environmental concerns with other developed countries in Western Europe. Rapid industrial development during the twentieth century has generated visible scars on the natural environment. Industrialization accelerated the shift from a dominantly rural to a predominantly urban society. Cities expanded rapidly in terms of both their spatial distribution a…