Who created agriculture

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Egyptians were among the first peoples to practice agriculture on a large scale, starting in the pre-dynastic period from the end of the Paleolithic into the Neolithic, between around 10,000 BC and 4000 BC. This was made possible with the development of basin irrigation.


Who is the father of agriculture?

Norman Ernest Borlaug (25 March 1914 – 12 September 2009) was an American agricultural scientist, and humanitarian. He is considered by some to be the “father of modern agriculture” and the father of the green revolution.


Where was agriculture invented?

the Fertile CrescentAgriculture originated in a few small hubs around the world, but probably first in the Fertile Crescent, a region of the Near East including parts of modern-day Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Israel and Jordan.


When was the agriculture invented?

between 7,000 and 10,000 years agoHumans invented agriculture between 7,000 and 10,000 years ago, during the Neolithic era, or the New Stone Age. There were eight Neolithic crops: emmer wheat, einkorn wheat, peas, lentils, bitter vetch, hulled barley, chickpeas, and flax.


How did human started agriculture?

It was the first profound change in the relationship between fully modern humans and the environment: people evolved into their current form some 200,000 years ago (see human evolution), yet they did not begin to engage in agriculture until about 15,000–10,000 years before the present (bp).


Who were the first farmers?

The Zagros Mountain range, which lies at the border between Iran and Iraq, was home to some of the world’s earliest farmers. Sometime around 12,000 years ago, our hunter-gatherer ancestors began trying their hand at farming.


When did agriculture start answer?

Agriculture was developed at least 10,000 years ago, and it has undergone significant developments since the time of the earliest cultivation. Independent development of agriculture occurred in northern and southern China, Africa’s Sahel, New Guinea and several regions of the Americas.


Where did the first farmers come from?

Farming is thought to have originated in the Near East and made its way to the Aegean coast in Turkey. From there, farming and the specific culture that came with it (such as new funerary rites and pottery) spread across much of Western Europe.


What is the brief history of agriculture?

The history of agriculture is the story of humankind’s development and cultivation of processes for producing food, feed, fiber, fuel, and other goods by the systematic raising of plants and animals. Prior to the development of plant cultivation, human beings were hunters and gatherers.


When was agriculture invented?

Humans invented agriculture between 7,000 and 10,000 years ago, during the Neolithic era, or the New Stone Age.


Where did agriculture originate?

Agriculture originated in a few small hubs around the world, but probably first in the Fertile Crescent, a region of the Near East including parts of modern-day Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Israel and Jordan.


What plants did farmers grow?

WHICH PLANTS DID THE FIRST FARMERS GROW? In the Fertile Crescent, farmers grew tall, wild grasses, including an early type of barley, and primitive varieties of wheat called emmer and einkorn. These naturally produced large grains (seeds) that were tasty and nourishing.


Why did humans domesticate plants?

One is that in times of abundance humans had the leisure to start experimenting in the domestication of plants. The other theory suggests that in lean times – thanks to population growth, over-exploitation of resources, a changing climate, et cetera – domestication was a way to supplement diets.


Where did the first farmers live?

The Zagros Mountain range, which lies at the border between Iran and Iraq, was home to some of the world’s earliest farmers. Sometime around 12,000 years ago, our hunter-gatherer ancestors began trying their hand at farming.


Which country has the best agricultural economy?

Brazil is historically one of the best agricultural countries on which its economy based. Around 41% of the total land is agriculture occupied in Brazil. It has an entire land of 2.1 billion acres and the area occupied by farming is almost 867.4 million acres in Brazil.


Who is the father of agriculture?

Norman Ernest Borlaug (25 March 1914 – 12 September 2009) was an American agricultural scientist, and humanitarian. He is considered by some to be the ” father of modern agriculture ” and the father of the green revolution. He won the 1970 Nobel Peace Prize for his life’s work.


When was agriculture invented?

Humans invented agriculture between 7,000 and 10,000 years ago, during the Neolithic era, or the New Stone Age.


What is the history of agriculture?

Agriculture, also known as farming, is the production of food, fiber, animal feed, and other goods by means of growing and harvesting plants and animals. Agriculture is practiced throughout the world. Many agricultural products are used every day, from the clothes we put on in the morning to the sheets we sleep


How did hybrid seeds contribute to agriculture?

Hybrid seeds contributed to the increased agricultural output of the second half of the 20th century.


What is the oldest method of irrigation?

Conversely, when the waters were low, the land dried up, killing crops. The oldest method of irrigation made use of man-made underground streams, called qanats, and is still being used in parts of the Middle East.


When did irrigation start?

Evidence suggests that irrigation first appeared in Egypt and Mesopotamia in the fourth millennium B.C. Floods caused by the yearly inundation of the Nile would have had disastrous effects for ancient farmers, washing away dikes and swamping fields. Conversely, when the waters were low, the land dried up, killing crops.


When was the combine harvester invented?

Plows and other farming implements improved, and the mechanical combine harvester—a machine that harvests grain—was invented in the 1830s. In the early 1900s, the horse-drawn plow was a catalyst for introducing more machinery on the farm.


Where did agriculture originate?

The history of agriculture begins in the Fertile Crescent. This area of Western Asia comprises the regions of Mesopotamia and Levant while being confined by the Syrian Desert to the south and the Anatolian Plateau to the north. In the early 1900s, University of Chicago archaeologist James Henry Breasted coined the term “Fertile Crescent” to describe this location’s role as the birthplace of agriculture. It has often been called the “Cradle of Civilization” as well, since both the wheel and writing first appeared there. Modern Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, and the Palestinian territories all include some land within the Fertile Crescent.


What do ants do for food?

Various species of ants engage in some kind of agriculture. Here, a leaf-cutter ant gathers food for its fungus farm . Various species of ants engage in some kind of agriculture. Here, a leaf-cutter ant gathers food for its fungus farm. You may think of ants as picnic pilferers.


Did salt ants fertilize humans?

It Sure Wasn’t Humans : The Salt Ants in Fiji farm plants and fertilize them with their poop. And they’ve been doing this for 3 million years, much longer than humans, who began experimenting with farming about 12,000 years ago.


Do ants have domesticated animals?

Some ants seem to have domesticated animals too. Certain species herd wild aphids from plant to plant, and ‘milk’ honeydew, a sticky, sugary secretion, by gently stroking the aphids with their antenna. Acropyga ants take it one step further, and farm mealybugs, a type of bug that lives on tree roots.


Do ants feed plants?

As for ants feeding plants, ant poop seems to be an abundant fertilizer for many plants. But, Fisher notes, these ants are not the first to try agriculture. Leaf-cutter ants, for example, have been farming for at least 8 million years. But the leaf-cutter ants farm fungus, not plants.


What is the origin of agriculture?

The word agriculture is a late Middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, “field”, and cultūra, ” cultivation ” or “growing”. While agriculture usually refers to human activities, certain species of ant, termite and beetle have been cultivating crops for up to 60 million years.


When did agriculture start?

The scientific study of agriculture began in the 18th century, when Johann Friedrich Mayer conducted experiments on the use of gypsum (hydrated calcium sulphate) as a fertilizer. Research became more systematic when in 1843, John Lawes and Henry Gilbert began a set of long-term agronomy field experiments at Rothamsted Research Station in England; some of them, such as the Park Grass Experiment, are still running. In America, the Hatch Act of 1887 provided funding for what it was the first to call “agricultural science”, driven by farmers’ interest in fertilizers. In agricultural entomology, the USDA began to research biological control in 1881; it instituted its first large program in 1905, searching Europe and Japan for natural enemies of the gypsy moth and brown-tail moth, establishing parasitoids (such as solitary wasps) and predators of both pests in the USA.


How does livestock affect the environment?

A senior UN official, Henning Steinfeld, said that “Livestock are one of the most significant contributors to today’s most serious environmental problems”. Livestock production occupies 70% of all land used for agriculture, or 30% of the land surface of the planet. It is one of the largest sources of greenhouse gases, responsible for 18% of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions as measured in CO 2 equivalents. By comparison, all transportation emits 13.5% of the CO 2. It produces 65% of human-related nitrous oxide (which has 296 times the global warming potential of CO 2) and 37% of all human-induced methane (which is 23 times as warming as CO 2 .) It also generates 64% of the ammonia emission. Livestock expansion is cited as a key factor driving deforestation; in the Amazon basin 70% of previously forested area is now occupied by pastures and the remainder used for feedcrops. Through deforestation and land degradation, livestock is also driving reductions in biodiversity. Furthermore, the UNEP states that ” methane emissions from global livestock are projected to increase by 60 per cent by 2030 under current practices and consumption patterns.”


What is the basis of pastoral agriculture for several Arctic and Subarctic peoples?

Reindeer herds form the basis of pastoral agriculture for several Arctic and Subarctic peoples.


How does agriculture increase yield?

Agriculture seeks to increase yield and to reduce costs. Yield increases with inputs such as fertilisers and removal of pathogens , predators, and competitors (such as weeds). Costs decrease with increasing scale of farm units, such as making fields larger; this means removing hedges, ditches and other areas of habitat.


What was the Arab agricultural revolution?

The Arab Agricultural Revolution, starting in Al-Andalus (Islamic Spain), transformed agriculture with improved techniques and the diffusion of crop plants.


How many people were employed in agriculture in the 21st century?

At the start of the 21st century, some one billion people, or over 1/3 of the available work force, were employed in agriculture. It constitutes approximately 70% of the global employment of children, and in many countries employs the largest percentage of women of any industry.


What is the origin of agriculture?

origins of agriculture, the active production of useful plants or animals in ecosystems that have been created by people. Agriculture has often been conceptualized narrowly, in terms of specific combinations of activities and organisms—wet-rice production in Asia, wheat farming in Europe, cattle


Why is agriculture a cultural phenomenon?

Because it is a cultural phenomenon, agriculture has varied considerably across time and space. Domesticated plants and animals have been (and continue to be) raised at scales ranging from the household to massive commercial operations.


What is the process of domestication?

Domesticationis a biological process in which, under human selection, organisms develop characteristics that increase their utility, as when plants provide larger seeds, fruit, or tubers than their wild progenitors. Known as cultigens, domesticated plants come from a wide range of families (groups of closely related genera that share a common ancestor; seegenus). The grass(Poaceae), bean(Fabaceae), and nightshadeor potato(Solanaceae) families have produced a disproportionately large number of cultigens because they have characteristics that are particularly amenableto domestication.


Why are domesticated animals more docile than wild animals?

Domesticated animals tend to have developed from species that are social in the wild and that, like plants, could be bred to increase the traits that are advantageous for people. Most domesticated animals are more docile than their wild counterparts, and they often produce more meat, wool, or milk as well.


What are domesticated animals?

Domesticated animals tend to have developed from species that are social in the wild and that, like plants, could be bred to increase the traits that are advantageous for people. Most domesticated animals are more docilethan their wild counterparts, and they often produce more meat, wool, or milk as well. They have been used for traction, transport, pest control, assistance, and companionship and as a form of wealth. Species with abundant domesticated varieties, or breeds, include the dog(Canis lupus familiaris), cat(Felis catus), cattle(Bosspecies), sheep(Ovisspecies), goat(Capraspecies), swine (Susspecies), horse(Equus caballus), chicken(Gallus gallus), and duckand goose(family Anatidae).


Why do grasses have cultigens?

The grass ( Poaceae ), bean ( Fabaceae ), and nightshade or potato ( Solanaceae) families have produced a disproportionately large number of cultigens because they have characteristics that are particularly amenable to domestication.


What happens to plants and animals over time?

Over time, some plants and animals have become domesticated, or dependent on these and other human interventions for their long-term propagation or survival.


How did farming start?

The three field crop rotation system was replaced with a four field system and sweeping enclosure acts regulated land management, selective cross-breeding began on an industrial scale to increase crop size as well as yields creating several cultivars in the process. Animal husbandry also improved, leading to a greater surplus than had been permissible under the old system. It is said that these changes permitted the industrial revolution and even greater concentration of urban development, fueling the empire. How so? More crops for fewer workers, better methods of keeping and replacing nutrients in the soil meant that more people could work in industry. When the Corn Laws in England were repealed, it began the global food economy; about the same time, Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution put agriculture on the modern path of a science as we began to understand the development of crops.


Where did farming originate?

Archaeologists and palaeontologists have traced the origins of farming to around 10,000 years ago, to somewhere in the Indus Valley, and possibly as a separate development in China along the Yangtze River (6) .


What were the crops of Mesoamerica?

In Mesoamerica and South America, with the Inca, the Maya, Olmecs and the Aztecs, relatively early development of agriculture permitted the building of enormous cities that impressed the European colonizers; it was quickly identified that these civilizations had an impressive agriculture-based economy that stood on a par with Europe, challenging what was then understood about the development of civilization. In Mesoamerica it was corn and in South America it was the humble potato (18) – today the staple crop of most people in the western world, along with coca and the domestication of animal species such as llama and alpaca.


What did hunter-gatherers do?

For most of our existence, humans were hunter-gatherers. This means that people lived a nomadic lifestyle, moving with the seasons to follow the food supply. As the glaciers retreated and plant life patterns and growth areas changed in response, it meant that the need to move so often became slightly less essential – though undoubtedly the lifestyle carried on for thousands of years as people sought to maximize their resource acquisition (4, p574-5). Hunter-gatherer societies would have known which crops were best to exploit with each season.


What was the Middle East’s agricultural revolution?

The Middle East continued to see much innovation in the agricultural industries, something that historians refer to as The Arab Agricultural Revolution (10). This was thanks to the diversity of the local topographies, the crops grown in the Middle East and Indus Valley that European societies coveted, and later acted as a trade bridge between Far East and Europe (11).


What is the early civilization?

Early Civilization. Early civilization can be considered a boom time in agricultural science and technology. Around 5500 BC (7, p26-28), the Sumerian civilization of the Middle East and other early pre Greco-Roman civilizations understood the need for a specialized agricultural workforce for their societies to thrive.


What is agriculture in the US?

Agriculture is defined as the cultivation and exploitation of animals, plants (including fungi) and other forms of organic life for human use including food, fiber, medicines, fuel and anything else. It is, and has been since there was an agricultural market, one of the largest employers of people; in the USA today, agriculture represents 20% of the US economy (1). Before organised agriculture, it is believed that the food supply could provide for just 4 million people globally (21).


Why did people start farming?

In the Near East, for example, it’s thought that climatic changes at the end of the last ice age brought seasonal conditions that favored annual plants like wild cereals. Elsewhere, such as in East Asia, increased pressure on natural food resources may have forced people to find homegrown solutions. But whatever the reasons for its independent origins, farming sowed the seeds for the modern age.


What was the farming revolution?

Taking root around 12,000 years ago, agriculture triggered such a change in society and the way in which people lived that its development has been dubbed the ” Neolithic Revolution.”. Traditional hunter-gatherer lifestyles, followed by humans since their evolution, were swept aside in favor of permanent settlements …


What mutation occurred during the spread of farming into southeastern Europe?

But at some point during the spread of farming into southeastern Europe, a mutation occurred for lactose tolerance that increased in frequency through natural selection thanks to the nourishing benefits of milk.


Where did wheat come from?

The wild progenitors of crops including wheat, barley and peas are traced to the Near East region. Cereals were grown in Syria as long as 9,000 years ago, while figs were cultivated even earlier; prehistoric seedless fruits discovered in the Jordan Valley suggest fig trees were being planted some 11,300 years ago.


When did corn cobs first appear?

While maize-like plants derived from teosinte appear to have been cultivated at least 9,000 years ago, the first directly dated corn cob dates only to around 5,500 years ago . Corn later reached North America, where cultivated sunflowers also started to bloom some 5,000 years ago.


How long ago did goats come to Europe?

Dates for the domestication of these animals range from between 13,000 to 10,000 years ago. Genetic studies show that goats and other livestock accompanied the westward spread of agriculture into Europe, helping to revolutionize Stone Age society. While the extent to which farmers themselves migrated west remains a subject of debate, …


When did rice and millet farming start?

The origins of rice and millet farming date to around 6,000 B.C.E.


Who did agriculture first?

Women did the agriculture first.Only after starting to use agricultural equipment which are heavy,men started to work on that.


When was agriculture invented?

Most likely the idea of agriculture – in a very nascent sense – was ‘trialled’ in multiple locations in Africa, from 2 million years through to about 300,000 years ago.


How does agriculture help India?

In fact, women contribute more in agriculture in comparison to the men. The famous agronomist Swaminathan describes that it was a woman who cultivated crops for the first time and thus initiated the art and science of agriculture. As men went hunting in search of food, women began to collect seeds from native flora and began to cultivate those for food and fuel. Women continued to play a key role in preserving basic life support systems such as land, water, flora and fauna. They have protected the health of the soil through organic recycling and have promoted plant safety by preserving variety diversity and genetic resistance. Women do the all work related to the field which is biologically accepted by them. Women have the active participation in farm activities as well as in the non-farm activities like poultry farming (Singh, 2013).


What is the role of women in agriculture?

The role of women in agriculture is in multidimensional areas such as unpaid subsistence labours, farmers, Co-farmers, managers and entrepreneurs. Not only in the field, women are also involved in allied activities such as food security, horticulture, forestry and livestock and also does the entire household work. Then also women have not get recognition of main agricultural worker either they get the title of helper in the field as a result they do not have right to take decision. Fact is that woman’s agricultural production leads to their self-sustenance and as a result their food production gets increased.


What did the neighboring tribes do when they went short of their own food source?

When neighboring tribes went short of their own food source they would raid the farmers food storage, and to protect themselves the farmers designated some men to protect the store and repel the invaders, thu s forming the first armies that had to be compensated for their time, same as the store keeper was compensated, and so was born taxation.


How do women work in agriculture?

They work in field from the sowing of seed to the final cutting of the crops. They involved in activities like sowing, transplantation, weeding, harvesting and post harvesting activities like winnowing, processing, storage etc. They perform numerous labor intensive jobs such as hoeing, grass cutting, cotton stick collections and separation of seeds from fiber. Women are also expected to collect wood from fields. This wood is being used as a major fuel source for cooking. Because of the increasing population pressure, over grazing and desertification, women face difficulties in searching of fire wood. Studies have revealed that women earn extra income from the sale of milk and animals. Mostly women are engaged in cleaning of animal, sheds, watering and milking the animals.


What animals raided cereal grasses?

When those first farmers had their fields of grains, animals like sheep, goats and cattle would raid the always green cereal grasses and they captured some and so was livestock rearing started.


When did agriculture begin?

The first agriculture appears to have developed at the closing of the last Pleistocene glacial period, or Ice Age (about 11,700 years ago).


Why do archaeologists study agricultural origins?

Because some resource management practices, such as intensively tending nondomesticated nut-bearing trees, bridge the boundary between foraging and farming, archaeologists investigating agricultural origins generally frame their work in terms of a continuum of subsistence practices.


What is plant and animal management?

Plant and animal management was and is a familiar concept within hunting and gathering cultures, but it took on new dimensions as natural selection and mutation produced phenotypes that were increasingly reliant upon people.


Which Native American peoples developed complex methods to manage diverse sets of plants and animals?

For instance, Australian Aborigines and many of the Native American peoples of western North America developed complex methods to manage diverse sets of plants and animals, often including (but not limited to) cultivation.


Does agriculture have to be a response to food scarcity?

Notably, agriculture does not appear to have developed in particularly impoverished settings; domestication does not seem to have been a response to food scarcity or deprivation. In fact, quite the opposite appears to be the case.

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Overview

Agriculture or farming is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farm…


Etymology and scope

The word agriculture is a late Middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager ‘field’ and cultūra ‘cultivation’ or ‘growing’. While agriculture usually refers to human activities, certain species of ant, termite and beetle have been cultivating crops for up to 60 million years. Agriculture is defined with varying scopes, in its broadest sense using natural resources to “produce commodities which maintain life, including food, fiber, forest products, horticultural crops, and t…


History

The development of agriculture enabled the human population to grow many times larger than could be sustained by hunting and gathering. Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, and included a diverse range of taxa, in at least 11 separate centers of origin. Wild grains were collected and eaten from at least 105,000 years ago. In the Paleolithic levant, 23,000 years a…


Types

Pastoralism involves managing domesticated animals. In nomadic pastoralism, herds of livestock are moved from place to place in search of pasture, fodder, and water. This type of farming is practised in arid and semi-arid regions of Sahara, Central Asia and some parts of India.
In shifting cultivation, a small area of forest is cleared by cutting and burning th…


Contemporary agriculture

From the twentieth century, intensive agriculture increased productivity. It substituted synthetic fertilizers and pesticides for labour, but caused increased water pollution, and often involved farm subsidies. In recent years there has been a backlash against the environmental effects of conventional agriculture, resulting in the organic, regenerative, and sustainable agriculture movements. O…


Production

Overall production varies by country as listed.
Cropping systems vary among farms depending on the available resources and constraints; geography and climate of the farm; government policy; economic, social and political pressures; and the philosophy and culture of the farmer.
Shifting cultivation (or slash and burn) is a system in which forests are burnt, r…


Crop alteration and biotechnology

Crop alteration has been practiced by humankind for thousands of years, since the beginning of civilization. Altering crops through breeding practices changes the genetic make-up of a plant to develop crops with more beneficial characteristics for humans, for example, larger fruits or seeds, drought-tolerance, or resistance to pests. Significant advances in plant breeding ensue…


Environmental impact

Agriculture is both a cause of and sensitive to environmental degradation, such as biodiversity loss, desertification, soil degradation and global warming, which cause decrease in crop yield. Agriculture is one of the most important drivers of environmental pressures, particularly habitat change, climate change, water use and toxic emissions. Agriculture is the main source of toxins released into the …

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