Who was the goddess of agriculture and fertility


Who is the god of fertility?

who was the goddess of fertility

  • Parvati: The Hindu Goddess of Fertility – Mythology Dictionary – See U in History
  • Hathor: The Egyptian Goddess of Fertility – Mythology Dictionary – See U in History
  • Inanna ( Anunnaki) – Mesopotamian Goddess of Fertility, Love and war | Sumerian Mythology

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Who is the goddess of Love and fertility?

Which goddesses are fertility goddesses?

  • Aphrodite, goddess of beauty, love, pleasure, sexuality and procreation.
  • Aphaea, local goddess associated with fertility and the agricultural cycle.
  • Artemis, goddess of the hunt, the wilderness, wild animals, the Moon, chastity and childbirth.
  • Demeter, goddess of the harvest, agriculture, fertility and sacred law.

Who is the pagan god of fertility?

  • Baal worship is not a bygone phenomenon. …
  • The Elijah Message calls people back to obedience of the commandments of YaHuWaH the Almighty Elohim of Israel. …
  • Though the vast majority of mankind will continue to worship Baal, there will be many ‘ overcomers ,’ believers who keep the commandments of YaHuWaH and have the faith of …

Who is the Roman god of fertility?

These included:

  • Venus Cloacina – the Purifier
  • Venus Felix – the Lucky, suggesting she could be prayed to for good luck
  • Venus Genetrix – Mother, representing her role as mother of rome
  • Venus Murcia – Myrtle, representing the importance of this plant to her
  • Venus Verticordia – the Changer of Hearts, representing her role in love

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Who is Demeter in Greek mythology?

She is the daughter of the Titans, Cronus and Rhea, and she is the mother of Persephone, the queen of the underworld. Her name in Roman mythology is Ceres and the word “cereal” is actually derived from her name.

What is the most important myth about Demeter?

Indeed, the most important myth related to Demeter is about her daughter’s abduction by Hades . Demeter was one of Zeus’ earliest affairs even before his marriage to Hera and Persephone was his daughter from Demeter. It is told in the myth that Zeus promised Persephone as a bride for Hades. However, he knew that Demeter would oppose this and he kept this secret from her. Hades abducted Persephone to the underworld and that made Demeter furious.

What are the symbols of Demeter?

Sheaves of wheat, winged serpents, acorns, torches, honey and bread are the symbols of Demeter in Greek mythology and she is usually depicted in the paintings holding a sheaf of wheat in her hands.

What is the Roman goddess of agriculture?

Roman goddess of agriculture. This article is about the Roman goddess. For the dwarf planet, see Ceres (dwarf planet). For other uses, see Ceres (disambiguation). Ceres. Goddess of agriculture, fertility, grains, the harvest, motherhood, the earth, and cultivated crops.

Who is the goddess of agriculture in Rome?

Ceres is the only one of Rome’s many agricultural deities to be listed among the Dii Consentes, Rome’s equivalent to the Twelve Olympians of Greek mythology. The Romans saw her as the counterpart of the Greek goddess Demeter, whose mythology was reinterpreted for Ceres in Roman art and literature.

What was Ceres offered before the harvest?

Before the harvest, she was offered a propitiary grain sample ( praemetium ). Ovid tells that Ceres “is content with little, provided that her offerings are casta ” (pure). Ceres’ main festival, Cerealia, was held from mid to late April.

What was Ceres offered to the earth?

In January, Ceres was offered spelt wheat and a pregnant sow, along with the earth-goddess Tellus, at the movable Feriae Sementivae. This was almost certainly held before the annual sowing of grain. The divine portion of sacrifice was the entrails ( exta) presented in an earthenware pot ( olla ).

What was Ceres’ contribution to agriculture?

Agricultural fertility. Ceres was credited with the discovery of spelt wheat (Latin far ), the yoking of oxen and ploughing, the sowing, protection and nourishing of the young seed, and the gift of agriculture to humankind; before this, it was said, man had subsisted on acorns, and wandered without settlement or laws.

Who is Ceres’ mother?

The complex and multi-layered origins of the Aventine Triad and Ceres herself allowed multiple interpretations of their relationships; Cicero asserts Ceres as mother to both Liber and Libera, consistent with her role as a mothering deity. Varro’s more complex theology groups her functionally with Tellus, Terra, Venus (and thus Victoria) and with Libera as a female aspect of Liber. No native Roman myths of Ceres are known. According to interpretatio romana, by which Roman deities were identified with their Greek counterparts, she was an equivalent to Demeter, one of the Twelve Olympians of Greek religion and mythology; this made Ceres one of Rome’s twelve Di Consentes, daughter of Saturn and Ops, sister of Jupiter, mother of Proserpina by Jupiter and sister of Juno, Vesta, Neptune and Dis. Ceres’ known mythology is indistinguishable from Demeter’s:

Who held the grain ears and torch?

Emperors claimed a partnership with Ceres in grain provision, as in this sestertius of 66 AD. Left: Nero, garlanded. Right: Annona stands with cornucopiae (horns of Plenty); enthroned Ceres holds grain-ears and torch; between is a modius (grain measure) on a garlanded altar; in the background is a ship’s stern.

What is the Eleusinian Mysteries?

One of the oldest rituals in the world was dedicated to Demeter. The Eleusinian Mysteries were surrounded by magic and, as the name suggests, mysteries . Even today, little is known about what actually occurred during the ritual. The Eleusinian Mysteries marked the initiation of women on the path of the Goddess. In the Holy Night, something happened that made the women, who were already aware of the power of the Goddess, follow their path once and for all.

What is the Greek festival of the return of Persephone?

The Greek festival “Thesmophoria” was celebrated annually in October, in the autumn, in honor of Demeter and it was exclusively for women. It was three days of celebrations for the return of Persephone to the Underworld. The initiates shared a sacred drink made of barley and cakes during the festival. One of the characteristics of the Thesmophoria was a punishment to the criminals who acted against the sacred laws and against the women.

Who is the Greek goddess of agriculture?

Greek Goddess of Agriculture, Fertility, Sacred Law and the Harvest. Demeter is the goddess of the harvest and presides over grains and the fertility of the earth. Although she was most often referred to as the goddess of the harvest, she was also goddess of sacred law and the cycle of life and death. Her virgin daughter Persephone was abducted by …

What was the fertility festival held in honor of Demeter?

Only women attended the Thesmophoria, a fertility festival held in honor of Demeter. The fields of grain and the threshing-floor were under her protection. They were temples at which she could occupy at any moment. Her chief festival came at the harvest time.

Why is the torch depicted in connection with Demeter?

The snake and the pig were sacred to her. The torch is often depicted in connection with Demeter because of her persistent search for Persephone. Demeter came to Eleusis during the reign of King Erechtheus of Athens.

Where were Demeter and Dionysus worshipped?

Demeter and Dionysus were worshipped at Eleusis, a little town near Athens. Their worship was referred to as the Eleusinian Mysteries. Demeter was older than Dionysus. They were the two great gods of the Earth. Metaneira, a mother herself, comforted Demeter in Persephone’s absence.

Who was Demeter’s daughter?

Demeter was the daughter of Cronos and Rhea. She was the goddess of harvest and fertility. She had one daughter, Persephone; Zeus was Persephone’s father. After Hades abducted Persephone, Demeter grieved.

Did Demeter nurse Metaneira’s children?

In fact, Demeter nursed one of Metaneira’s children. She doted on the child and anointed him with ambrosia on a daily basis. Demeter’s attachment to the child alarmed Metaneira, and the two ultimately went their separate ways. Still angry over the abduction of Persephone, Demeter subjected the world to famine.

What is the goddess of agriculture?

Within Greek mythology, Demeter is the goddess of agriculture, fertile soils/land, fruit, grasses, and grains. Demeter belongs to the tradition of earth-mother and comes from the Mediterranean part of the world. She is commonly known as a fertility goddess.

What is the Lithuanian goddess of agriculture?

Lithuanian mother-goddess of agriculture, fertile earth, and nourishment. Proto-Slavic god of vegetation, fertility, spring and the harvest. Literally Mother Earth is the collective term applied to a number of Slavic deities devoted to plants, growth, birth, creation, and patrons of field works.

What is the Roman counterpart to Demeter?

The Roman counterpart to Demeter is Ceres . Ceres is the Roman goddess of agriculture, crops, fertile land, and grain. Ceres is credited with giving the gift of agriculture to humankind. Ceres was also considered the instructor of man in agriculture.

What did Shennong do to help farmers?

This includes the invention of farm implements such as the hoe, plow, and axe; irrigation, farmers’ markets, and taming oxen and yoking horses to assist farmers.

Why is Pomona named after the goddess?

Because of her association with fruit, she is often depicted in an orchard or holding a bowl of fruit. As most will know, Pomona, California, home of Cal Poly – Pomona was named after the goddess. The seal of the City of Pomona also includes a likeness of the deity. Figure 4: Pomona, Roman Goddess of Fruit.

Why is agriculture important?

The importance of agriculture transcends time and location. Throughout history, agriculture has played an important part in community, religious, and cultural development. Farmers and agriculturalists have long looked to religious and mythical figures to watch over them and their agricultural endeavors.

Who was the first agricultural teacher?

While many in agriculture believe that Native American Squanto, a Wampanoag tribal chief, was the first agriculture instructor in the new world (Drache, 1996; Hurt, 2002), Triptolemus was the first ancient mythological agriculture teacher.



In ancient Roman religion, Ceres was a goddess of agriculture, grain crops, fertility and motherly relationships. She was originally the central deity in Rome’s so-called plebeian or Aventine Triad, then was paired with her daughter Proserpina in what Romans described as “the Greek rites of Ceres”. Her seven-day April festival of Cerealia included the popular Ludi Ceriales (Ceres’ games). She was a…

Etymology and origins

The name Cerēs stems from Proto-Italic *kerēs (‘with grain, Ceres’), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *ḱerh₃-os (‘nourishment’), a derivative of the root *ḱerh₃-, meaning ‘to feed’.
Ancient Roman etymologists thought that ceres derived from the Latin verb gerere, “to bear, bring forth, produce”, because the goddess was linked to pastoral, agricultural and human fertility.
Archaic cults to Ceres are well-evidenced among Rome’s neighbours in the Regal period, includin…

Cults and cult themes

Ceres was credited with the discovery of spelt wheat (Latin far), the yoking of oxen and ploughing, the sowing, protection and nourishing of the young seed, and the gift of agriculture to humankind; before this, it was said, man had subsisted on acorns, and wandered without settlement or laws. She had the power to fertilize, multiply and fructify plant and animal seed, and her laws an…

Myths and theology

The complex and multi-layered origins of the Aventine Triad and Ceres herself allowed multiple interpretations of their relationships, beyond the humanised pattern of relations within the Triad; while Cicero asserts Ceres as mother to both Liber and Libera, consistent with her role as a mothering deity, Varro’s more complex theology groups her functionally with Tellus, Terra, Venus (and thus V…


Vitruvius (c.80 – 15 BC) describes the “Temple of Ceres near the Circus Maximus” (her Aventine Temple) as typically Araeostyle, having widely spaced supporting columns, with architraves of wood, rather than stone. This species of temple is “clumsy, heavy roofed, low and wide, [its] pediments ornamented with statues of clay or brass, gilt in the Tuscan fashion”. He recommends that templ…


Ceres was served by several public priesthoods. Some were male; her senior priest, the flamen cerialis, also served Tellus and was usually plebeian by ancestry or adoption. Her public cult at the Ambarvalia, or “perambulation of fields” identified her with Dea Dia, and was led by the Arval Brethren (“The Brothers of the Fields”); rural versions of these rites were led as private cult by the heads of households. An inscription at Capua names a male sacerdos Cerialis mundalis, a priest …

Cult development

Roman tradition credited Ceres’ eponymous festival, Cerealia, to Rome’s second king, the semi-legendary Numa. Ceres’ senior, male priesthood was a minor flaminate whose establishment and rites were supposedly also innovations of Numa. Her affinity and joint cult with Tellus, also known as Terra Mater (Mother Earth) may have developed at this time. Much later, during the early Imperial era,


The word cereal derives from Ceres association with edible grains. Whereas Ceres represents food, her son Liber (later indistinguishable from Bacchus) represents wine and “good living”). The Roman comedian Terence (c. 195/185 – c. 159 BC) uses the line sine Cerere et Baccho friget Venus which at its simplest translates as “without food and drink, love freezes” or “love needs food and win…

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