who was the goddess of agriculture



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Apr 26 2022



Who is the goddess of agriculture Rome?

CeresCeres, in Roman religion, goddess of the growth of food plants, worshiped either alone or in association with the earth goddess Tellus.

What is the god of agriculture name?

DemeterDemeter, the Greek God of Farming and Agriculture, was the daughter of the Titan Kronos and the Titaness Rhea. She is sister to Poseidon, the Greek God of the sea. Demeter had a daughter with Zeus, the Greek God of the sky and ruler of the other Greek Gods. Her daughter was called Persephone.

What is the goddess Demeter known for?

goddess of the harvest and agricultureIn ancient Greek religion and mythology, Demeter (/dɛˈmiːtər/; Attic: Δημήτηρ Dēmḗtēr [dɛːmɛ́ːtɛːr]; Doric: Δαμάτηρ Dāmā́tēr) is the Olympian goddess of the harvest and agriculture, presiding over grains and the fertility of the earth. She is also called Deo (Δηώ).

Who was the goddess of agriculture and harvest of the earth?

goddess DemeterThe Greek god of harvest is the goddess Demeter. In addition to harvest, she is also the Greek goddess of agriculture and the cycle of life and death. Demeter is credited for creating the seasons, which was a result of her daughter, Persephone, being stolen by Hades.

Who is the Egyptian goddess of agriculture?

Renenūtet (also transliterated Ernūtet and Renenet) was a goddess of nourishment and the harvest in ancient Egyptian religion. The importance of the harvest caused people to make many offerings to Renenutet during harvest time.

Who is the goddess of the garden?

Venus, ancient Italian goddess associated with cultivated fields and gardens and later identified by the Romans with the Greek goddess of love, Aphrodite.

Who is the Greek goddess of plants?

The name Antheia was also given to Hera and connected to the Horae, under which she had a temple at Argos. It was also an epithet of Aphrodite at Knossos. She was the goddess of vegetation, gardens, blossoms, especially worshipped in spring and near lowlands and marshlands, favorable to the growth of vegetation.

Who is the goddess of food?

Annapurna GoddessAnnapurna (goddess)AnnapurnaGoddess of Food and NourishmentGoddess Annapurna (Parvati), sitting on the throne, giving alms to Shiva.Sanskrit transliterationAnnapūrṇaSanskritअन्नपूर्णा5 more rows

Who was the ugliest god?

HephaestusHephaestus. Hephaestus is the son of Zeus and Hera. Sometimes it is said that Hera alone produced him and that he has no father. He is the only god to be physically ugly.

What was Minerva the goddess of?

goddess of warMinerva (Pallas Athena in Greek) was one of the most important of the ancient Greek and Roman goddesses. She was originally a goddess of war, hence her armour and spear. She fought on behalf of just causes and is therefore seen as a civilising influence, in contrast to Mars.

What is Juno the goddess of?

As Juno Lucina, goddess of childbirth, she had a temple on the Esquiline from the 4th century bc. In her role as female comforter she assumed various descriptive names. Individualized, she became a female guardian angel; as every man had his genius, so every woman had her juno.

What is Athena the goddess of?

Athena, also spelled Athene, in Greek religion, the city protectress, goddess of war, handicraft, and practical reason, identified by the Romans with Minerva. She was essentially urban and civilized, the antithesis in many respects of Artemis, goddess of the outdoors.

Who is the Indian god of agriculture?

Vishnu is linked to an ocean of milk, to rivers, to woods, to farmlands and pasturelands. He wears silk, assuming the existence of farmers, spinners, weavers, dyers and washers. In the Vedas, Vishnu is the name of a minor god, who is younger brother of Indra, and is known for the three steps he took to span the world.

Who is the god of plant life?

Dionysus, god of wine, vegetation, pleasure, madness, and festivity. The Roman equivalent is Bacchus. Gaia, the goddess of the earth and its personification.

Is there a food god?

Ukemochi no Kami, (Japanese: “Goddess Who Possesses Food”), in Shintō mythology, the goddess of food.


What is the goddess of agriculture?

Within Greek mythology, Demeter is the goddess of agriculture, fertile soils/land, fruit, grasses, and grains. Demeter belongs to the tradition of earth-mother and comes from the Mediterranean part of the world. She is commonly known as a fertility goddess.

What is the goddess of fruit?

Pomona. Another well-known goddess related to agriculture is Pomona. Pomona is a Roman goddess of fruit, fruit trees, and fruitful abundance. Because of her association with fruit, she is often depicted in an orchard or holding a bowl of fruit.

Is agriculture a science?

Agriculture is both a science and an art. For as long as humans have tilled the soil they have looked to a higher power for help with their planting, pest control, weather, and harvest. They have asked for help with their livestock and land.

Who is the patron saint of farmers?

However, most people don’t know that there is actually a Patron Saint of Farmers and Crops: St. Isidore. St.

What is Demeter’s daughter’s name?

Demeter is often depicted with a torch and stalks of corn or other grains. The story of Demeter’s daughter Persephone introduces the story of life, death, regeneration, and the cycle of life. As a result of being kidnapped by Hades and taken to the underworld, Persephone must remain there for six months of the year.

Who is the Emperor of the Five Grains?

He is the God-King of Chinese medicine and agriculture. He is also known as Wugushen, the Emperor of the Five Grains which includes wheat, rice, millet, beans, and sorghum.

What is Shennong’s role in the Chinese culture?

Within oriental tradition, Shennong is considered the Divine Farmer or Divine Husbandman. He is the God-King of Chinese medicine and agriculture. He is also known as Wugushen, the Emperor of the Five Grains which includes wheat, rice, millet, beans, and sorghum. Shennong is credited with creating a stable agricultural society in China by teaching the Chinese the art and practice of agriculture. This includes the invention of farm implements such as the hoe, plow, and axe; irrigation, farmers’ markets, and taming oxen and yoking horses to assist farmers. A depiction of Shennong with a hoe or spade is below.

What was the name of the cult that Ceres and her daughter Proserpina were associated with

Towards the end of the Second Punic War, around 205 BC, an officially recognised joint cult to Ceres and her daughter Proserpina was brought to Rome from southern Italy (part of Magna Graecia) along with Greek priestesses to serve it. In Rome, this was known as the ritus graecus Cereris; its priestesses were granted Roman citizenship so that they could pray to the gods “with a foreign and external knowledge, but with a domestic and civil intention”. The cult was based on ancient, ethnically Greek cults to Demeter, most notably the Thesmophoria to Demeter and Persephone, whose cults and myths also provided a basis for the Eleusinian mysteries .

Who held the grain ears and torch?

Emperors claimed a partnership with Ceres in grain provision, as in this sestertius of 66 AD. Left: Nero, garlanded. Right: Annona stands with cornucopiae (horns of Plenty); enthroned Ceres holds grain-ears and torch; between is a modius (grain measure) on a garlanded altar; in the background is a ship’s stern.

What did Ceres do?

She had the power to fertilize, multiply and fructify plant and animal seed, and her laws and rites protected all activities of the agricultural cycle. In January, Ceres was offered spelt wheat and a pregnant sow, along with the earth-goddess Tellus, at the movable Feriae Sementivae. This was almost certainly held before the annual sowing of grain. The divine portion of sacrifice was the entrails ( exta) presented in an earthenware pot ( olla ). In a rural context, Cato the Elder describes the offer to Ceres of a porca praecidanea (a pig, offered before the sowing). Before the harvest, she was offered a propitiary grain sample ( praemetium ). Ovid tells that Ceres “is content with little, provided that her offerings are casta ” (pure).

Who invoked Ceres?

In the ancient sacrum cereale a priest, probably the Flamen Cerialis, invoked Ceres (and probably Tellus) along with twelve specialised, minor assistant-gods to secure divine help and protection at each stage of the grain cycle, beginning shortly before the Feriae Sementivae.

What was Ceres’ role in the Plebeians?

Ceres was patron and protector of plebeian laws, rights and Tribunes. Her Aventine Temple served the plebeians as cult centre, legal archive, treasury and possibly law-court; its foundation was contemporaneous with the passage of the Lex Sacrata, which established the office and person of plebeian aediles and tribunes as inviolate representatives of the Roman people. Tribunes were legally immune to arrest or threat, and the lives and property of those who violated this law were forfeit to Ceres. The Lex Hortensia of 287 BC extended plebeian laws to the city and all its citizens. The official decrees of the Senate ( senatus consulta) were placed in Ceres’ Temple, under the guardianship of the goddess and her aediles. Livy puts the reason bluntly: the consuls could no longer seek advantage by arbitrarily tampering with the laws of Rome. The Temple might also have offered asylum for those threatened with arbitrary arrest by patrician magistrates. Ceres’ temple, games and cult were at least part-funded by fines imposed on those who offended the laws placed under her protection; the poet Vergil later calls her legifera Ceres (Law-bearing Ceres), a translation of Demeter’s Greek epithet, thesmophoros.

Where is the Temple of Ceres?

Vitruvius (c.80 – 15 BC) describes the “Temple of Ceres near the Circus Maximus” (her Aventine Temple) as typically Araeostyle, having widely spaced supporting columns, with architraves of wood, rather than stone. This species of temple is “clumsy, heavy roofed, low and wide, [its] pediments ornamented with statues of clay or brass, gilt in the Tuscan fashion “. He recommends that temples to Ceres be sited in rural areas: “in a solitary spot out of the city, to which the public are not necessarily led but for the purpose of sacrificing to her. This spot is to be reverenced with religious awe and solemnity of demeanour, by those whose affairs lead them to visit it.” During the early Imperial era, soothsayers advised Pliny the Younger to restore an ancient, “old and narrow” temple to Ceres, at his rural property near Como. It contained an ancient wooden cult statue of the goddess, which he replaced. Though this was unofficial, private cult ( sacra privata) its annual feast on the Ides of September, the same day as the Epulum Jovis, was attended by pilgrims from all over the region. Pliny considered this rebuilding a fulfillment of his civic and religious duty.

What does Ceres wear?

In free-standing statuary, she commonly wears a wheat-crown, or holds a wheat spray. Moneyers of the Republican era use Ceres’ image, wheat ears and garlands to advertise their connections with prosperity, the annona and the popular interest.

Who is the Greek goddess of agriculture?

Demeter :: Greek Goddess of Agriculture. Other Gods / Demeter. Demeter, the middle daughter of Cronus and Rhea, was the Ancient Greek goddess of grain and agriculture, one of the original Twelve Olympians. Her grief over her daughter Persephone – who has to spend one-third of the year with her husband Hades in the Underworld – is …

Who was the Giver of Food and Grain?

Demeter was known mostly as the Giver of Food and Grain, or “She of the Grain,” for short ( Sito ). However, since she presided over something as vital as the cycles of plants and seasons, the Ancient Greeks also referred to her as Tesmophoros, or “The Bringer of Laws,” and organized a women-only festival called Tesmophoria to celebrate her as such. Other epithets include: “Green,” “The Giver of Gifts,” “The Bearer of Food,” and “Great Mother.”

Who is Demeter in Greek mythology?

Demeter, the middle daughter of Cronus and Rhea, was the Ancient Greek goddess of grain and agriculture, one of the original Twelve Olympians. Her grief over her daughter Persephone – who has to spend one-third of the year with her husband Hades in the Underworld – is the reason why there is winter; her joy when she gets her back coincides with the fertile spring and summer months. Demeter and Persephone were the central figures of the Eleusinian Mysteries, the most famous secret religious festival in Ancient Greece.

What does the name Demeter mean?

Name. Demeter ’s name consists of two parts, the second of which ( -meter) is almost invariably linked with the meaning “mother, ” which conveniently fits with Demeter ’s role as a mother-goddess.

Did Demeter have a partner?

Demeter didn’t have many partners and was rarely portrayed with a male consort. The mortal Iasion and her brothers Poseidon and Zeus are the most noteworthy – if not the only – exceptions.

Who did Demeter love?

Early in her life, Demeter fell in love with a mortal named Iasion. She seduced him at the marriage of Cadmus and Harmonia and lay with him in a thrice-plowed field. Zeus didn’t think appropriate for such a respected goddess to have a relationship with a mortal, so he struck Iasion with a thunderbolt.

Who is Demeter’s brother?

Next, Demeter ’s brother Poseidon forced himself upon her (once transformed into a stallion), and the goddess, once again, became pregnant with two children: Despoena, a nymph, and Arion, a talking horse.

Who was the Aztec goddess of agriculture?

Chicomecoatl. Chicomecoatl was the Aztec goddess of agriculture during the Middle Culture period. She is sometimes called “goddess of nourishment”, a goddess of plenty and the female aspect of corn.

Who is the goddess of nature?

Hecate was the chthonic (earth-bound) goddess of nature, crossroads, the wilderness, poisonous plants and magic. Modern-day scholars regard the figure of Hecate as mysterious and “at home on the fringes…”

What is the goddess of fertility?

Heqet was the Egyptian goddess of fertility. She was associated with the flooding of the Nile, and the germination of grain crops. She was often depicted as a frog sitting upon a lotus.

Who is the Greek goddess of grasses?

Demeter was the Greek goddess of grasses, fertile land, grains, fruit and agriculture. She was the sister to Zeus and mother of Persephone. She also presided over the cycle of life and death. Demeter created the rose.

Who is Gaea in Greek mythology?

Gaea was the Greek, primordial representation of the earth. Born for Chaos, she was the mother of all the Olympian gods and titans by her union with Oranos (the sky).

Who is Hecate the Goddess of?

Hecate was the chthonic (earth-bound) goddess of nature, crossroads, the wilderness, poisonous plants and magic. Modern-day scholars regard the figure of Hecate as mysterious and “at home on the fringes…”.

Who were the seasons?

The Seasons, also known as the Horae, were goddesses of the seasons and natural portions of time. They guarded the gates of Olympus and presided over the fertility of the earth.

Who is the Greek goddess of spring?

Greek goddess of spring and the underworld. Persephone. Queen of the Underworld. Goddess of spring, flowers, death, life, vegetation and destruction. Statue of syncretic Persephone- Isis with a sistrum.

What was Persephone’s cult?

Persephone was worshipped along with her mother Demeter and in the same mysteries. Her cults included agrarian magic, dancing, and rituals. The priests used special vessels and holy symbols, and the people participated with rhymes. In Eleusis there is evidence of sacred laws and other inscriptions.

What is the Greek name for Persephone?

t. e. In Greek mythology, Persephone ( / pərˈsɛfəniː / pər-SEF-ə-nee; Greek: Περσεφόνη, romanized : Persephónē ), also called Kore or Kora ( / ˈkɔːriː / KOR-ee; Greek: Κόρη, romanized : Kórē, lit. ‘the maiden’), is the daughter of Zeus and Demeter. She became the queen of the underworld after her abduction by Hades, the god of the underworld, …

Who abducted Persephone?

In the myth describing the origin of their marriage, Pluto abducts Persephone to be his wife and the queen of his realm. Pluto (Πλούτων, Ploutōn) was a name for the ruler of the underworld; the god was also known as Hades, a name for the underworld itself.

Where is Persephone worshipped?

At Locri, a city of Magna Graecia situated on the coast of the Ionian Sea in Calabria (a region of southern Italy), perhaps uniquely, Persephone was worshiped as protector of marriage and childbirth, a role usually assumed by Hera; in the iconography of votive plaques at Locri, her abduction and marriage to Hades served as an emblem of the marital state, children at Locri were dedicated to Proserpina, and maidens about to be wed brought their peplos to be blessed. Diodorus Siculus knew the temple there as the most illustrious in Italy. During the 5th century BC, votive pinakes in terracotta were often dedicated as offerings to the goddess, made in series and painted with bright colors, animated by scenes connected to the myth of Persephone. Many of these pinakes are now on display in the National Museum of Magna Græcia in Reggio Calabria. Locrian pinakes represent one of the most significant categories of objects from Magna Graecia, both as documents of religious practice and as works of art.

When was Nestis named?

In a Classical period text ascribed to Empedocles, c. 490–430 BC, describing a correspondence among four deities and the classical elements, the name Nestis for water apparently refers to Persephone: “Now hear the fourfold roots of everything: enlivening Hera, Hades, shining Zeus. And Nestis, moistening mortal springs with tears.”

Was there a cult in Eleusis?

There is evidence of a cult in Eleusis from the Mycenean period; however, there are not sacral finds from this period. The cult was private and there is no information about it. As well as the names of some Greek gods in the Mycenean Greek inscriptions, also appear names of goddesses, like “the divine Mother” (the mother of the gods) or “the Goddess (or priestess) of the winds”, who don’t have Mycenean origin . In historical times, Demeter and Kore were usually referred to as “the goddesses” or “the mistresses” (Arcadia) in the mysteries . In the Mycenean Greek tablets dated 1400–1200 BC, the “two queens and the king” are mentioned. John Chadwick believes that these were the precursor divinities of Demeter, Persephone and Poseidon.


In ancient Roman religion, Ceres was a goddess of agriculture, grain crops, fertility and motherly relationships. She was originally the central deity in Rome’s so-called plebeian or Aventine Triad, then was paired with her daughter Proserpina in what Romans described as “the Greek rites of Ceres”. Her seven-day April festival of Cerealia included the popular LudiCeriales (Ceres’ games). She was a…

Etymology and origins

The name Cerēs stems from Proto-Italic *kerēs (‘with grain, Ceres’), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *ḱerh₃-os (‘nourishment’), a derivative of the root *ḱerh₃-, meaning ‘to feed’.
Ancient Roman etymologists thought that ceres derived from the Latin verb gerere, “to bear, bring forth, produce”, because the goddess was linked to pastoral, agricultural and human fertility.
Archaic cults to Ceres are well-evidenced among Rome’s neighbours in the Regal period, includin…

Cults and cult themes

Ceres was credited with the discovery of speltwheat (Latin far), the yoking of oxen and ploughing, the sowing, protection and nourishing of the young seed, and the gift of agriculture to humankind; before this, it was said, man had subsisted on acorns, and wandered without settlement or laws. She had the power to fertilize, multiply and fructify plant and animal seed, and her laws an…

Myths and theology

The complex and multi-layered origins of the Aventine Triad and Ceres herself allowed multiple interpretations of their relationships, beyond the humanised pattern of relations within the Triad; while Cicero asserts Ceres as mother to both Liber and Libera, consistent with her role as a mothering deity, Varro’s more complex theology groups her functionally with Tellus, Terra, Venus (and thus V…


Vitruvius (c.80 – 15 BC) describes the “Temple of Ceres near the Circus Maximus” (her Aventine Temple) as typically Araeostyle, having widely spaced supporting columns, with architraves of wood, rather than stone. This species of temple is “clumsy, heavy roofed, low and wide, [its] pediments ornamented with statues of clay or brass, gilt in the Tuscan fashion”. He recommends that templ…


Ceres was served by several public priesthoods. Some were male; her senior priest, the flamen cerialis, also served Tellus and was usually plebeian by ancestry or adoption. Her public cult at the Ambarvalia, or “perambulation of fields” identified her with Dea Dia, and was led by the Arval Brethren (“The Brothers of the Fields”); rural versions of these rites were led as private cult by the heads of households. An inscription at Capuanames a male sacerdos Cerialis mundalis, a priest …

Cult development

Roman tradition credited Ceres’ eponymous festival, Cerealia, to Rome’s second king, the semi-legendary Numa. Ceres’ senior, male priesthood was a minor flaminate whose establishment and rites were supposedly also innovations of Numa. Her affinity and joint cult with Tellus, also known as Terra Mater (Mother Earth) may have developed at this time. Much later, during the early Imperial era,


The word cereal derives from Ceres association with edible grains. Whereas Ceres represents food, her son Liber (later indistinguishable from Bacchus) represents wine and “good living”). The Roman comedian Terence (c. 195/185 – c. 159 BC) uses the line sine Cerere et Baccho friget Venuswhich at its simplest translates as “without food and drink, love freezes” or “love needs food and win…

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