Why is cross breeding important in agriculture

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Crossbreeding is undertaken to:

  • Utilise the desired attributes of two or more breeds
  • Produce progeny better suited to target markets while maintaining environmental adaption
  • Improve productivity quicker in traits which are slow to change within a breed i.e. …
  • Take advantage of the production improvements which arise from heterosis (hybrid vigour) when breeds are crossed.
An important feature of crossbreeding is maternal heterosis, which can be described as the advantage of the crossbred cow in the mating system.

Crossbreeding improves more lowly heritable traits.
Traits Heritability Heterosis
Growth medium medium
Carcass high low

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Jul 2, 2012

Full
Answer

What are the advantages of crossbreeding in agriculture?

Access to arrays of both adapted and highly productive breeds allows synchronization of the genetic characteristics of both breeding females and crossbred offspring to diverse production environments and markets. However, proper use of crossbreeding also requires that breeds be maintained in their proper roles in the system.

What is cross breeding in gardening?

As technology advances the average gardener have more choices to pick from, One particular way they get more types of plantings is using a process called cross breeding in plants. Also called hybridization, As in every scientific advancement we reach we have to check on the pros and cons of such discovery.

What are the characteristics of cross breeding in cattle?

Characteristics such as udder capacity, reproductive efficiency, and forage conversion are perfect for high production in tropical climates. One issue that arises in studying crossbreeding is designing experiments to analyze its effects. Most results are based on field data with out an initial experimental design.

What is the level of crossbreeding that the breeder uses?

The level of crossbreeding that the breeder uses also depends on what they are trying to select for within the herd. Pro-Cross is a popular system that selects for multiple traits.

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What are the benefits of crossbreeding?

The advantages of crossbreeding are well documented and can have a big impact on your net return. Heterosis (hybrid vigor) and breed complementarity are the primary benefits realized from a properly planned crossbreeding program. Heterosis is the increase in performance or function above what is expected based on the parents of the offspring.


How much better are crossbred cows?

Research has shown that crossbred cows can have many advantages, including a 6 percent higher calving rate, a 4 percent higher calf survival rate, an 8 percent increase in efficiency, a 38 percent increase in longevity and a 23 percent increase in lifetime productivity.


What is the increase in performance or function above what is expected based on the parents of the offspring?

Heterosis is the increase in performance or function above what is expected based on the parents of the offspring. Breed complementarity allows a breeder to capitalize on the strengths of different breeds because no single breed excels at all of the traits that affect profitability.


How much does calf survival increase?

On average, these advantages include a 4 percent increase in calf survival, a 5 percent increase in weaning weight and a 6 percent increase in post-weaning gain. However, these effects are greatly influenced by breed.


How much does breed affect weaning?

Their results showed the direct effect of breed can influence weaning weight by more than 70 pounds and post-weaning gain by more than 86 pounds. In addition, the maternal effect of breed can influence weaning weight more than 88 pounds (Table 1).


How to capture maternal heterosis?

Perhaps the easiest way to capture maternal heterosis is to identify the type of female you desire and buy her from a reliable, off-farm source. Depending on what you are looking for, this can be difficult. In addition, replacement heifers that are known for their quality and performance will command a high price.


What are some examples of Angus x Hereford?

Common examples include the Black Baldie (Angus x Hereford), Brangus (Angus x Brahman) and SimAngus (Simmental x Angus), as well as many other combinations. The traits that are most important to you should be based on the goals of your operation.


Why are hybrid plants better than other plants?

This can be great for those working in agriculture as they can reap greater crops and make more money.


Does selective breeding cause loss of variety?

One point that is noticeable by a lot of people is that selective breeding can contribute to loss of variety . This gives little room for evolutionary expansion in plants further in the future.


Why do breeders use crossbreeding?

Others will continually use crossbreeding to make sure there is a constant level of heterosis within the herd. The level of crossbreeding that the breeder uses also depends on what they are trying to select for within the herd. Pro-Cross is a popular system that selects for multiple traits. Pro-Cross (3)


What is the benefit of crossbreeding?

One of the main benefits of using crossbreeding is that there is less inbreeding within the herd and an increase in heterosis, which is the increase of the performance of an individual when compared to the average performance of their parents. Heterosis is also sometimes called hybrid vigor.


What is heterosis in breeding?

Heterosis is also sometimes called hybrid vigor. One large problem that has risen in herds is low fertility and calving ease, especially in Holsteins. By incorporating crossbreeding, a breeder can improve both of these traits with out a risk of increasing inbreeding. (1)


Why is there a rotation in the breed of the bull used each generation?

There is a rotation in the breed of the bull used each generation so that there can be high heterosis and the traits received are not diluted. It can be easily implemented into most United States herds due to the high percentage of Holstein herd.


What is crossbreeding in animals?

What is Crossbreeding? The mating of two animals from different breeds. Normally, the breeds have complimentary traits that will enhance the economic value of the offspring.


Does inbreeding cause depression?

With most breeding strategies today, there tends to be an increase in inbreeding and therefore inbreeding depression within a herd. With this increase in inbreeding, the animals of the herd are less likely to be reproductively successful.


Is there too much variability in crossbreeding?

There is too much variability in using crossbreeding. At the start of the implementation of crossbreeding, the uniformity within a herd will be thrown off, which is to be expected. This lack of uniformity can be costly to the producer, especially if they do not commit to the crossbreeding program in the long term.


What is wide crossing?

Wide crossing is often employed to obtain a plant that is practically identical to the original crop with the exception of a few desirable genes contributed by the distant relative. The transfer of unwanted characteristics is circumvented through a series of backcrosses (for six or more generations), a time-consuming and laborious process. Introgression libraries, that is, marker-defined genomic regions taken from the donor parent and introgressed onto the background of elite crop lines, can help accelerate the process (Zamir, 2001 ).


Where did graft hybridization originate?

Historically graft-induced variations were recorded to occur in ancient China. Charles Darwin however was the first to use the term “graft hybridization”. He noted that the formation of breeding hybrids through plant grafting between distinct species or varieties (without the intervention of the sexual organs). Liu (2018) outlines all of these observations that have been confirmed now many times by experts. The results are clear and striking and regularly reproduced by many plant breeders and horticulturists. Indeed, plant hybrid transmission of small regulatory RNAs, mRNAs and other reporter sequences are standard experimental tools in plant molecular genetics and development ( Ham & Lucas, 2017 ). Many such cases of “graft hybrids”, were described by Darwin where shoots produced from grafted plants exhibited a combination of characters of both rootstock and scion. It was understandable that he would explain their formation by his theory of Pangenesis involving transmissible and transported “gemmules” in the phloem. Over the past few decades, the existence of graft hybrids has been widely documented, and graft hybridization is considered to be a simple and efficient means of plant breeding. Graft hybridization is now explained by horizontal gene transfer and DNA transformation and the long-distance transport of mRNA and small RNAs considered to be involved in the formation of graft hybrid seeds. We should now add a reverse transcription step to lock in such transported RNA phloem information into the hybrid seed genomes.


Can ruminants be genetically modified?

The possibility of modifying fat quality and content in the body and milk of ruminants can be conducted genetically and nutritionally. In genetic terms cross-breeding special species of cattle with famous domestic lines is a popular route.

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