Why is subsistence agriculture practised in india


Subsistence agriculture is still practiced in certain parts of the country due to following reasons: i Small farmers have smaller landholdings which are uneconomical. ii Poor farmers don’t have expensive fertilizers and high yielding varieties of seeds.

What are the 3 major types of subsistence agriculture?

What are the types of subsistence farming?

  • Shifting agriculture. Main article: Shifting cultivation.
  • Primitive farming.
  • Nomadic herding.
  • Intensive subsistence farming.

What are the disadvantages of subsistence farming?

  • it leads to poverty and low economic development because of low production
  • they lead to environmental destruction because of deforestation
  • in some areas due to specialisation in one crop they has been dependence on such crops for example cocoa farming in Ghana and ground nuts farming in Zambia

What are the forms of subsistence agriculture?

the two types of subsistence farming are: slash and burn agriculture or shifting agriculture is practised mainly by tribal people. after 2 or 3 years of producing vegetable and grain crops on a recently cleared piece of land, the migrants abandon it for another newly cleared plot.

What are some facts about subsistence farming?

 Usually integration involves one or more written agreements that describe the areas of cooperation in detail, as well as some coordinating bodies representing the countries involved.  This co-operation usually begins with economic integration and as it continues,


Why is subsistence agriculture practiced?

subsistence farming, form of farming in which nearly all of the crops or livestock raised are used to maintain the farmer and the farmer’s family, leaving little, if any, surplus for sale or trade. Preindustrial agricultural peoples throughout the world have traditionally practiced subsistence farming.

How is subsistence agriculture Practised in India?

Primitive subsistence agriculture is practised on small patches of land with the help of primitive tools like hoe, dao and digging sticks, and family/ community labour. This type of farming depends upon monsoon, natural fertility of the soil and suitability of other environmental conditions to the crops grown.

Where is subsistence farming practiced?

Subsistence farming, which today exists most commonly throughout areas of Sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, and parts of South and Central America, is an extension of primitive foraging practiced by early civilizations. Historically, most early farmers engaged in some form of subsistence farming to survive.

What is subsistence farming class 8?

Subsistence farming is practised to meet the needs of the farmer’s family. Low levels of technology and household labour are used to produce a small output. In Intensive subsistence the farmer cultivates a small plot of land using simple tools and more labour.

Characteristics of Subsistence Farming In India

In this farming, small lands are used to grow crops approx 1-3 hectares. Their traditional and small land is enough for farming. The goods are produced only for the consumption of the family.

What is Primitive Subsistence Farming?

Primitive subsistence farming known as the oldest form of agriculture. However, it is known as simple subsistence farming. This kind of farming happens on a self-sufficient basis, and farmers raise food according to their family’s needs. If some small surpluses may be left, then for cash, they exchange their goods.

Characteristics Of Primitive Subsistence Farming

Mostly the forest cleared by fire, and ashes add to the soil fertility. ‘slash-and-burn agriculture’ known as Shifting cultivation.

What is Intensive Subsistence Farming?

The term intensive subsistence agriculture define by high output per land and relatively low output per worker. Although, the nature of this agriculture has changed. ‘Monsoon type of agriculture’ is another name of intensive agriculture as it did in monsoon lands of Asia.

Characteristics Of Intensive Subsistence Farming

It involves a smaller plot of land and more labour to grow the crop, less costly equipment, and many more.

How is subsistence farming Practised in India?

The types of farming system practised in India are: (i)Primitive Subsistence Farming: This type of farming is still practised in few pockets of India. This type of farming depends upon monsoon, natural fertility of the soil and suitability of other environmental conditions to the crops grown.

Why is intensive subsistence farming most common in India?

in intensive agriculture there will only be a small plot of land in that they enhance more production by using HIV seeds fertilizers chemical pesticides it is common in India because India is a highly polluted country and there is little land for cultivation so hi there should be higher prediction.

Where is primitive subsistence farming Practised?

Shifting cultivation is practised in the thickly forested areas of Amazon basin, tropical Africa, parts of southeast Asia and Northeast India. These are the areas of heavy rainfall and quick regeneration of vegetation.

What factors does primitive subsistence farming depends on?

Primitive subsistence type of farming depends upon monsoon, natural fertility of the soil and suitability of other environmental conditions to the crops grown.

How many farmers are there in India in 2020?

India’s official farmer population, in other words, is anywhere between 100 million and 150 million.

What are the 3 major types of subsistence agriculture?

Subsistence Agricultural Regions: Shifting cultivation (2) Pastoral nomadism ( 3 ) Intensive subsistence: wet rice dominant (4)

What is subsistence farming?

Subsistence farming is performed in a small area only. As against, a large area is required to perform commercial farming. In subsistence farming, mainly food grains like wheat and rice, fruits and vegetables are grown. Conversely, in commercial farming mainly cash crops and cereals are grown.

What is subsistence farming?

Subsistence Farming – This is farming which is done for consumption of the farm owners, can be either Primitive or Intensive. Here the only aim is to fulfil the needs of the farmer and his family.

What is the primary economic activity in India?

In India, agriculture is our primary economic activity and about two-thirds of our population is engaged in the same. Let us get acquainted with types of farming done in India.

What is primitive farming?

Primitive subsistence farming is the type of subsistence farming that is typically done on small areas of land with traditional tools like hoe, dao, digging sticks etc. This is rather the most natural method of growing crops, because, the natural environment like heat, rain, wind and condition of the soil contribute to the growth of crops. Primitive farming further includes: 1 Shifting cultivation: In this primitive method, farmers clear the cultivated land, after harvesting the crops and burn the land. As a result, they maintain the fertility of the soil, so whoever uses the land next can get a good yield. This method is known by different names in different regions of India. Shifting cultivation is also practised in some countries in South America and South East Asia 2 Nomadic herding: This kind of farming method involves herders and farmers travelling from place to place with their flocks of animals. And, the herders also source wool, meat, hide and dairy products from the livestock. Nomadic herding is very common in Rajasthan, Jammu & Kashmir with herders rearing sheep, goats, yaks, and camel.

What is the most common crop in commercial farming?

Wheat and maize are the most common crops of commercial grain farming. Farmers of Asia, Europe, temperate grasslands of North America generally practice this type of farming. Plantation farming – Plantation farming is a mix of agriculture and industry and is practised across a vast area of land. Plantation owners usually grow a single crop like …

What is the end product of agriculture?

The end product also works as a raw material for industries. For example, the rubber industry uses the rubber produced from its plantation as raw material. Mixed farming – This farming method involves cultivation of crops, rearing livestock and growing their fodder.

Where is nomadic farming common?

Nomadic herding is very common in Rajasthan, Jammu & Kashmir with herders rearing sheep, goats, yaks, and camel. Intensive subsistence farming is quite in contrast to primitive farming, farmers practice intensive farming on wider areas of land, use modern machinery and tools and add chemical fertilizers for better crops.

What is the most natural way to grow crops?

This is rather the most natural method of growing crops, because, the natural environment like heat, rain, wind and condition of the soil contribute to the growth of crops. Primitive farming further includes: Shifting cultivation: In this primitive method, farmers clear the cultivated land, after harvesting the crops and burn the land.

How is subsistence agriculture used?

Subsistence agriculture can be used as a poverty alleviation strategy , specifically as a safety net for food-price shocks and for food security. Poor countries are limited in fiscal and institutional resources that would allow them to contain rises in domestic prices as well as to manage social assistance programs, which is often because they are using policy tools that are intended for middle- and high-income countries. Low-income countries tend to have populations in which 80% of poor are in rural areas and more than 90% of rural households have access to land, yet a majority of these rural poor have insufficient access to food. Subsistence agriculture can be used in low-income countries as a part of policy responses to a food crisis in the short and medium term, and provide a safety net for the poor in these countries.

What is subsistence farming?

Agriculture in Vietnam. Subsistence agriculture occurs when farmers grow food crops to meet the needs of themselves and their families on smallholdings. Subsistence agriculturalists target farm output for survival and for mostly local requirements, with little or no surplus.

What was the dominant mode of production in the world until recently, when market-based capitalism became widespread?

Subsistence agriculture was the dominant mode of production in the world until recently, when market-based capitalism became widespread.

What are the basic requirements for subsistence agriculture?

Subsistence agriculture generally features: small capital/finance requirements, mixed cropping, limited use of agrochemicals (e.g. pesticides and fertilizer ), unimproved varieties of crops and animals, little or no surplus yield for sale, use of crude/traditional tools (e.g. hoes, machetes, and cutlasses), mainly the production of food crops, performed on small scattered plots of land, reliance on unskilled labour (often family members), and (generally) low yields.

What are some examples of livestock?

Examples are the nomadic Bhotiyas and Gujjars of the Himalayas. They carry their belongings, such as tents, etc., on the backs of donkeys, horses, and camels. In mountainous regions, like Tibet and the Andes, yak and llama are reared. Reindeer are the livestock in arctic and sub-arctic areas.

How do farmers use slash and burn?

While this ” slash-and-burn ” technique may describe the method for opening new land, commonly the farmers in question have in existence at the same time smaller fields, sometimes merely gardens, near the homestead there they practice intensive ”non-shifting” techniques until shortage of fields where they can employ “slash and burn” to clear land and (by the burning) provide fertilizer (ash). Such gardens near the homestead often regularly receive household refuse, and the manure of any household, chickens or goats are initially thrown into compost piles just to get them out of the way. However, such farmers often recognize the value of such compost and apply it regularly to their smaller fields. They also may irrigate part of such fields if they are near a source of water.

What is the name of the farming method that involves bringing animals from one place to another?

Nomadic herding. In this type of farming people migrate along with their animals from one place to another in search of fodder for their animals. Generally they rear cattle, sheep, goats, camels and/or yaks for milk, skin, meat and wool.

Where is subsistence agriculture practiced?

In India subsistence agri­culture is practiced in the areas of isolation and relative isolation in Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Northeast India, Bun- delkhand and the Western Ghats. The intensity of agriculture and multiple cropping are directly governed by the pressure of population in a given region at a given point of time.

What is intensive subsistence farming?

Intensive Subsistence Agriculture. Subsistence agriculture is the type of farming in which crops grown are consumed by the grower and his family. Subsistence agriculture may be of different types. It may be shifting or settled agriculture, it may be primitive or non-primitive in character, it may be both inten­sive and extensive in nature.

What are the two types of intensive subsistence agriculture?

There are two types of the intensive subsistence agriculture. One is dominated by wet paddy and the other is dominated by crops other than paddy, e.g., wheat, pulses, maize, millets, sorghum, kaoling, soya-beans, tu­bers and vegetables. ADVERTISEMENTS:

What is the main source of manure in paddy farming?

In paddy intensive subsistence farming the farmers make use of every available type of manure, including farm waste, rotten vege­tables, fish waste, cow dung and human excreta to ensure higher agri­cultural returns and also to maintain the high fertility of the land.

What is the traditional method of paddy farming?

In wet paddy agriculture, traditionally much manual and hand la­bour is required. Ploughing is done with the help of buffaloes, oxen, mules and horses. Paddy crop is planted in narrow rows by females, while hoeing and harvesting operations are done by both males and females. Harvesting and thrashing are done manually.

What is the difference between primitive agriculture and non-primi-five agriculture?

The main distinction between primitive (shifting) and non-primi- five (sedentary type of subsistence agriculture) depend s on the tools and equipment’s used. The tools of the primitive agriculturists are more or less the same as those used in shifting …

What crops can be raised in dry paddy fields?

In tracts where only one crop of rice can be raised the fields are normally used in the dry season to raise other food or cash crops such as oats, pulses, tobacco, oilseeds and vegetables . ADVERTISEMENTS: In wet paddy agriculture, traditionally much manual and hand la­bour is required.

What are the characteristics of subsistence agriculture?

Crops characteristic of subsistence agriculture, including beans, maize and cassava, often show yield ratios relative to current management in excess of 2 (Pretty et al., 2003 ). Those high ratios are used to promote organic agriculture as the solution to developing country agriculture ( Badgley et al., 2007 ). After all, if yield can be doubled without fertiliser, then why struggle to buy any! The answer is found in yields achieved rather than ratios. Despite the increases, the yields remain small. Increasing yield of maize crops from 0.5 to 1.2 t ha −1 (ratio >2), for example, is hardly a long-term solution to hunger when the same gains could be achieved on all fields with small doses of fertiliser, and yields of 5–10 t ha −1 with larger applications.

How much of India’s population is dependent on agriculture?

In India, about 50-75% of the labor population is dependent on agriculture. Increased vulnerability of agriculture to climate change will adversely impact the livelihoods of the small and marginal farmers, and the labor population who are highly dependent on this sector.

How does risk affect farmers?

In subsistence agriculture, crops failing or livestock dying place the farmer at risk of starvation. In commercial agriculture, fixed costs of crops sown and interest on debt means that losing even a portion of the crop, or receiving low prices, can easily generate negative cash flow. Steps a farmer can take to manage such risk include savings, diversification of enterprises, emergency borrowing, and purchase of hazard insurance against output risk, or some form of forward pricing against price risk. It remains open to question however how risk averse farmers are. Basic evidence that risk aversion is important is farmers’ willingness to pay for insurance and their interest in pricing their output in advance. Observations that give pause about the importance of risk aversion are the many farmers who do not buy even subsidized crop insurance and who do not attempt to lock in a price for their output, even when contractual means for doing so are available. Nonetheless, evidence from developing countries suggests risk aversion of a magnitude that could readily impair farmers’ willingness to invest in new production methods even when innovation would pay in expected value (see Moschini and Hennessy 2001 ).

What is poor farming?

Poor farmers practice subsistence agriculture and usually have a hand to mouth living. Their annual year’s income is dependent on monsoons. Any changes in the rainfall and temperature extremes can impact the crop production and adversely impact their livelihoods.

What are the disadvantages of subsistence farming?

It has the advantage of being ecologically sound, with locally adapted and resilient species and cultivars. The disadvantage, however, is low productivity. Various pressures are leading to the elimination of agroecological farming practices, such as fallow rotation systems, more reliance on commercial seed, and higher chemical and resource input systems. These practices have led to economic losses and environmental damage, including loss of biodiversity, and increases in diseases and pests, particularly crop pests that are resistant to common pesticides.

What is the diet of a dairy cow?

The diet of highly productive dairy cows often comprises a high proportion of nutrient-dense feeds with only a minimum proportion of herbage, forage or straw – long fibrous feeds provided to ensure satisfactory rumen function.

How does whole plant utilization work?

Whole plant utilization implies closing the production chains by old and new technology approaching a sustainable utilization. Value-added sorting of plant parts facilitates that, for example, low straw value can be upgraded by fractionation to a high-value leaf fraction for feed and to internodes with a high content of α-cellulose optimal for paper quality. Such activities would be performed by local agricultural biorefineries self-sufficient in energy, performing whole plant harvest as well as drying and fractionation as a link to supply upgraded raw materials to the food, feed, and nonfood industry. When production chains are closed and utilization is optimized, a wider range of crops can be grown and preprocessed, creating local employment avoiding the deleterious effects of monoculture.


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