Why was barley domesticated during the agricultural revolution

image

Wheat and barley are two of the founder crops of the agricultural revolution that took place 10,000 years ago in the Fertile Crescent and both crops remain among the world’s most important crops. Domestication of these crops from their wild ancestors required the evolution of traits useful to humans

Full
Answer

How did the evolution of barley change during domestication?

One of the remarkable changes during barley domestications was the appearance of six-rowed barley. The gene associated with this trait results in three times more seed per spike compared with ancestral wild barley. This increase in number of seed resulted in a major dichotomy in the evolution of barley.

Where did barley originate?

There has also been considerable debate regarding the number of times and locations that barley has been domesticated. Archaeological and genetic evidence suggest that one of the origins of barley and wheat could have been the Fertile Crescent, specifically in the Israel-Jordan area in the Fertile Crescent (Badr et al. 2000 ).

Is Africa a center of domestication of barley?

Morocco has also been proposed as a center of barley domestication (Molina-Cano and Conde 1980), but further evidence does not support this claim (Blattner and Badani Méndez 2001). Finally, the Horn of Africa has been suggested to at least be a center of diversification, if not domestication.

Is domesticated barley descended from a mosaic genome?

New evidence suggests that domesticated barley is actually descended from a number of wild barley populations, leading to a mosaic genome (Poets et al. 2015; Pankin et al. 2018 ).

image


Why are barley domesticated?

A Single Wild Progenitor Species Barley as a whole is well-adapted to marginal and stress-prone environments, and a more reliable plant than wheat or rice in regions which are colder or higher in altitude.


When was the barley first domesticated?

about 8000 b.c.Archaeological remains of barley grains found at various sites in the Fertile Crescent (Zohary and Hopf 1993 ; Diamond 1998 ) indicate that the crop was domesticated about 8000 b.c. (b.c. = calibrated dates and b.c. = uncalibrated dates, where calibration refers to normalization of radiocarbon age estimates based on …


Where was barley first domesticated?

the Fertile CrescentOne of the first cultivated grains of the Fertile Crescent, barley was domesticated about 8000 bce from its wild progenitor Hordeum spontaneum. Archaeological evidence dates barley cultivation to 5000 bce in Egypt, 2350 bce in Mesopotamia, 3000 bce in northwestern Europe, and 1500 bce in China.


Why was wheat domesticated during the agricultural revolution?

In the second phase of cultivation, domesticated forms consisting of einkorn and emmer wheat were grown by early farmers. These wheats acquired a non-brittle rachis, which allowed early farmers to efficiently harvest the grain without the spikes shattering and falling to the ground before harvest.


What is the economic importance of barley?

Description: Barley is widely used for food and fodder. Major uses of barley are in the beer industry, food processing and feed manufacturing industries. With the rising demand for beer, the demand for barley is also picking up. Also, more than 90% of the world malt production comes from barley.


What barley is used for?

In manufacturing, barley is used as a food grain, natural sweetener, and as an ingredient for brewing beer and making alcoholic beverages.


How did barley spread around the world?

Barley was one of the earliest domesticated crops, emerging in the Near East around 11,000 years ago. By 2,000 BC, barley cultivation had spread to Europe, North Africa, South Asia and East Asia. Today barley is the world’s fourth most important cereal crop, after wheat, rice and maize.


What is an interesting fact about barley?

Fun Facts about Barley: Barley was used as currency in ancient Mesopotamia. The Roman historian Pliny the Elder wrote that barley was a food for the gladiators, or the “barley-eaters” in ancient Greece. Barley was the model for the size of an inch.


What is the description of barley?

Definition of barley : a cereal grass (genus Hordeum and especially H. vulgare) having the flowers in dense spikes with long awns and three spikelets at each joint of the rachis also : its seed used especially in malt beverages, breakfast foods, and stock feeds.


Why and how was wheat domesticated?

Wheat was domesticated ten thousand years ago in the present-day Middle East, when humans rapidly modified the crop’s key traits. Nowadays, we continue to produce domestic wheat.


Why was the domestication of wheat important?

The domestication of wheat around 10,000 years ago marked a dramatic turn in the development and evolution of human civilization, as it enabled the transition from a hunter-gatherer and nomadic pastoral society to a more sedentary agrarian one.


Was wheat the first domesticated crop?

Einkorn wheat The crop is among the first eight crops to be domesticated and cultivated.


What were the two founder crops of the agricultural revolution?

Wheat and barley are two of the founder crops of the agricultural revolution that took place 10,000 years ago in the Fertile Crescent and both crops remain among the world’s most important crops. Domestication of these crops from their wild ancestors required the evolution of traits useful to humans …. Wheat and barley are two of the founder crops …


What traits are most pronounced between wild and domesticated crops?

Of these traits, grain retention and threshability, yield improvement, changes to photoperiod sensitivity and nutritional value are most pronounced between wild and domesticated forms.


Where did barley come from?

Archaeological and genetic evidence suggest that one of the origins of barley and wheat could have been the Fertile Crescent, specifically in the Israel-Jordan area in the Fertile Crescent (Badr et al. 2000 ).


When did wheat and barley start?

Wheat and barley are two of the founding crops that started the agricultural revolution about 10,000 years ago in the Fertile Crescent (Zohary et al. 2012 ). In fact, many of the wild progenitors of these crops still exist in this region (Harlan and Zohary 1966 ).


What are non-brittle rachis genes?

The Non-brittle rachis genes control the first and arguably one of the most important of these traits, seed retention, and are conserved across the Triticeae genomes on the short arm of the homoeologous group 3 chromosomes. Table 1. Key domestication/improvement genes for wheat and barley. Crop.


What genes control wheat?

Baking quality in wheat is controlled by genes known as prolamins (gliadins and glutenins) (Payne 1987 ). A recent assembly of the bread wheat genome (Clavijo et al. 2017) identified all previously known gluten genes, corrected 21 of these genes and identified an additional 33 genes.


What two crops were the founders of the agricultural revolution?

Abstract. Wheat and barley are two of the founder crops of the agricultural revolution that took place 10,000 years ago in the Fertile Crescent and both crops remain among the world’s most important crops.


Where is wheat grown?

Modern wheat is grown as far north as the Arctic Circle and as far south as 41 ° S in Chile ( fao.org ). Barley has a similar range ( croptrust.org ).


Is spelt more primitive than bread wheat?

Since spelt is not free-threshing, it can be considered to be more primitive than free-threshing bread wheat, at least from an anthropocentric view. Two genes are important for the free-threshing character: tenacious glumes ( Tg) and the domestication locus Q (which also affects other domestication traits).


How does agriculture affect the environment?

Agriculture alters both the animals and plants it domesticates. Ultimately, it changes the very landscape itself. The growing of a single crop in a field by definition substitutes a biological monoculture for the complex ecological system that existed on the same ground previously. This change has several effects.


What are the unintended effects of crop growing?

Unwittingly, they are also “selecting for” any organism that can live on wheat: wheat-eating “vermin,” pathogens, and diseases of wheat, etc.


Can growing crops deplete soil?

Over a relatively short period of time, growing a single crop can deplete even very rich soil. This was a problem which rendered many early agricultural sites uninhabitable after a time. It is still a very serious problem. There are other unintended effects of crop-growing.

image


A Single Wild Progenitor Species

Image
The wild progenitor of all of the barleys is thought to be Hordeum spontaneum (L.), a winter-germinating species which is native to a very wide region of Eurasia, from the Tigris and Euphrates river system in Iraq to the western reaches of the Yangtze River in China. Based on evidence from Upper Paleolithic sites such as Ohalo IIin I…

See more on thoughtco.com


Barley and DNA

  • British archaeologist Glynis Jones and colleagues completed a phylogeographic analysis of barley in the northern fringes of Europe and in the Alpine region and found that cold adaptive gene mutations were identifiable in modern barley landraces. The adaptations included one type that was non-responsive to day length (that is, the flowering was not delayed until the plant got a cert…

See more on thoughtco.com


How Many Domestication Events!?

  • Evidence exists for at least five different loci of domestication: at least three locations in the Fertile Crescent, one in the Syrian desert and one in the Tibetan Plateau. Jones and colleagues have reported additional evidence that in the region of the Fertile Crescent, there may have been up to four different domestication events of Asian wild barley. The differences within groups A-…

See more on thoughtco.com


Sites

  1. Greece:Dikili Tash
  2. Israel: Ohalo II
  3. Iran: Ali Kosh, Chogha Golan
  4. Iraq:Jarmo

See more on thoughtco.com


Selected Sources

  1. Allaby, Robin G. “Barley Domestication: The End of a Central Dogma?” Genome Biology16.1 (2015): 176.
  2. Dai, Fei, et al. “Transcriptome Profiling Reveals Mosaic Genomic Origins of Modern Cultivated Barley.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences111.37 (2014): 13403–08.
  3. Jones, G., et al. “DNA Evidence for Multiple Introductions of Barley into Europe Following Disp…
  1. Allaby, Robin G. “Barley Domestication: The End of a Central Dogma?” Genome Biology16.1 (2015): 176.
  2. Dai, Fei, et al. “Transcriptome Profiling Reveals Mosaic Genomic Origins of Modern Cultivated Barley.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences111.37 (2014): 13403–08.
  3. Jones, G., et al. “DNA Evidence for Multiple Introductions of Barley into Europe Following Dispersed Domestications in Western Asia.” Antiquity 87.337 (2013): 701–13.
  4. Jones, Glynis, et al. “Phylogeographic Analysis of Barley DNA as Evidence for the Spread of Neolithic Agriculture through Europe.” Journal of Archaeological Science39.10 (2012): 3230–38.

Leave a Comment